Saturday, 6 June 2009

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Related posts: 1. Download EBOOK Gratis Part1

Thursday, 4 June 2009

How to write a science thesis

Every student can benefit from extra help with matters of organization and style in the writing of term papers, theses, and dissertations - as a precursor to better grades and greater respect. This handy guide from the best-selling author team of "The Art of Scientific Writing" shows how to achieve maximum benefit with relatively little effort.

Based on a proven concept that assumes no special talent for writing, the book will be of great value to both native and non-native speakers of English. The treatment is rich in examples and challenging problems (with solutions provided in an appendix), applicable either in conjunction with a course or for self-study.


How can start earning money with adsense

Adsense is considered as one of the most powerful tool in a website publisher’s arsenal. It enables a person to monetize their sites easily. If used properly, it can generate a very large and healthy income for them. However if you are not using them rightly and just maximizing the income you squeeze from it, you are actually leaving a lot of money on the table. Something all people hate doing.

How you can start earning money with Adsense can be done easily and quickly. You will be amazed at the results you will be getting in such a short period of time. Start by writing some quality content articles which are also keyword incorporated. There are a lot of people given the gift of being good with words. Writing comes easy for them. Why not make it work in such a way that you will be earning some extra cash in the process.

There are actually three steps to put into mind before you begin writing your ads and having an effective Adsense.

Keyword search. Find some popular subjects, keywords or phrase. Select the ones which you think has more people clicking through. This is actually a keyword selector and suggestion tool that some sites are offering to those who are just their Adsense business.

Writing articles. Start writing original content with keywords from the topics that you have achieved in your search. Take note that search engines are taking pride in the quality of their articles and what you will be writing should keep up with their demands.

Quality content site. Build a quality content site incorporated with Adsense ads that is targeting the subject and keywords of your articles and websites. This is where all that you’ve done initially will go to and this is also where they will prove their worth to you.

The proper positioning of your ads should be done with care. Try to position your ads where surfers are most likely to click on them. According to research, the one place that surfers look first when they visit a certain site is the top left. The reason behind this is not known. Maybe it is because some of the most useful search engine results are at the top of all other rankings. So visitors tend to look in that same place when browsing through other sites.

Some of those who are just starting at this business may think they are doing pretty well already and thinking that their clickthrough rates and CPM figures are quite healthy. However, there are more techniques and styles to generate more clicks to double your earnings. By knowing these techniques and working them to your advantage, you will realize that you will be getting three times more than other people who have been previously doing what they are doing.

Finally, Adsense has some excellent tracking statistics that allows webmasters and publishers to track their results across a number of site on a site by site, page by page, or any other basis you wanted. You should be aware oft his capability and make the most of it because it is one powerful tool that will help you find out which ads are performing best. This way, you can fine tune your Adsense ads and focus more on the ones being visited the most rather than those who are being ignored.

Another thing you should know. Banners and skyscrapers are dead. Ask the experts. So better forget about banners and skyscrapers. Surfers universally ignore these kinds of ad formats. The reason behind this is that they are recognized as an advert and advert are rarely of any interest that’s why people ignore them.

To really start making money with Adsense, you should have a definite focus on what you wanted to achieve and how you will go about achieving them. As with any other kind of business ventures, time is needed coupled with patience. Do not just ignore your site and your Adsense once you have finished accomplishing them. Spare some time, even an hour, making adjustments to the Adsense ads on your sites to quickly trigger your Adsense income. Give it a try and you would not regret having gotten into Adsense in the first place.

PCR Cloning Technology and Applications

PCR had an immediate impact on cloning technology. It could produce large quantities of DNA that could be readily cloned and subsequently used to study the functions and behavior of genes in living systems.DNA cloning involves four basic steps. Scientists first isolate the source and vector DNA and free them from contaminants. They then use restriction enzymes to cut these two DNAs, creating ends that can connect the source DNA with the vector. Next they bond the source's DNA to the vector's with a DNA ligase enzyme that repairs the cuts and creates a single length of DNA. Finally the DNA is transformed into a host cell — a bacterium or another organism.

PCR-mediated cloning is a family of methods rather than a single technique. TA cloning, for example, uses Taq polymerase, an enzyme known as Tth DNA polymerase, or one of a group of other polymerases that preferentially add the base adenine (A) to particular ends of PCR products. Such products can be cloned into a vector containing complementary overhangs of the base thymidine (T). Blunt-end cloning uses DNA polymerases that possess proofreading activity, such as Pwo DNA polymerase. These actively remove mispaired nucleotides from the ends of double-stranded DNA and generate blunt-end PCR products. Researchers have also been able to amplify long lengths of DNA using mixtures of several different DNA polymerases. When the DNA fragments become longer than 10,000 bases, the conventional vectors do not work well as carriers of the target DNA. Instead scientists use hybrid vectors that contain drug resistance marker genes to allow for positive selection of the DNA fragment of interest. They are especially well suited for cloning large mammalian genes or multigene fragments.

What cloning method should a research team use? That depends on several factors, including the type of DNA polymerase, the length of the PCR product, and the purpose of the cloning experiment. Whatever approach they choose, researchers must test the bacterial host cells for the presence of the source DNA in their cytoplasm once they have the chance to divide. If the procedure has successfully transformed the vector into the host cell, the cell will test positive for the vector via a selectable marker.

In the early days of cloning, very few scientists had the skill and understanding to perform these fairly sophisticated techniques. Recently, however, the invention of pretested kits has given most life scientists simple access to this technique. CLONTECH Laboratories, Epicentre Technologies, Promega, Stratagene, and several other firms offer cloning kits and tools, along with effective technical support.

New cloning methods continue to emerge. "There will be a push to get away from traditional cloning methods toward other types of enzymes to do the cloning," says Carsten Carstens of Stratagene. "A major development will be the use of site-specific recombinant technology. We're about to release technology for using linear vectors in bacterial cells. That will be a lot more efficient in making libraries." Adds Henry Ji, Stratagene's director of new product development: "Responding to market need we have put together a program to clone antigens into expression vectors." Eppendorf Scientific has just introduced a method of cloning through electrofusion. "The general applications include monoclonal antibodies, different tumor cells, and ornamental plants," says Sharon Durbin, the company's product manager for electrofusion products.


The Human Genome Project and the commercial sequencing effort led by Celera Genomics have made significant progress in determining the DNA sequences of humans. The teams completed working drafts last year. Several labs have started to proof those drafts and to determine some of the missing sequence data. DNA sequencing uncovers important variations in the nucleotide bases, or polymorphisms, that make up our genes. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with an increased risk of developing diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Without PCR and cloning to generate enough DNA and permit examination of the functions of the genes that contain it, life science teams would not have made this kind of progress.

PCR technology promises advances in human genetics. For example, Thilly and colleagues have founded a company, Peoples Genetics, that aims to discover the inherited mutations that occur in minuscule proportions in the population (see accompanying story, "Genetics for the People"). They believe that this is essential to discovering disease-causing mutations in human populations.

Fields of science beyond traditional molecular biology laboratories have benefited from PCR. It has become a well-recognized tool in forensic science. Police labs routinely use it to identify blood and other forms of evidence (see accompanying story, "Science in a 'Dirty, Grungy World'"). In Manchester, UK, the Forensic Science Service uses Extract-N-Amp, a kit from Sigma-Aldrich, to differentiate between marijuana and other plants.

PCR has also become a useful tool in some unexpected scientific disciplines. For example, archaeologists have found it effective to determine relationships between ancient civilizations and to study the evolutionary biology of different animal species. PCR can amplify very small samples of DNA from virtually any tissue, including examples thousands of years old. These molecular readings have become very important in validating (and sometimes disproving) scientific conclusions based on circumstantial evidence.

Cloning technology has also enabled the routine study of gene function. It is now a relatively simple process to isolate large DNA fragments that contain genes and then to express the genes in transgenic hosts. In addition, the RT-PCR technique permits scientists to determine the genes responsible for producing very low levels of messenger RNA that may play an important role in cellular metabolism and the disease process. Researchers have only scratched the surface of understanding the many processes of the living cell.

Ultimately, the tools of PCR and cloning are geared toward understanding, treating, and preventing the diseases that affect the quality of human life each day. Take rheumatoid arthritis, a disease that affects both young and old individuals. Researchers know that a cytokine called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a major role in this disease. By causing immune cells to attack the body's own cells, it causes very painful inflammation. TNF binds to a specific membrane-bound receptor on the immune cells. Scientists have used recombinant DNA technology to clone an altered form of the receptor gene that codes for a soluble form of the receptor containing the TNF binding site. Injected into an arthritis patient, this modified protein binds to TNF and inhibits it from binding to the receptors on immune cells. That prevents the immune cells from initiating the signal cascade that causes inflammation.

Research teams are investigating many other disease processes in the hope of finding the key element or elements in the cell's signal transduction pathways that can present a point of attack on a disease. Several pharmaceutical companies are studying signal transduction pathways to develop drugs which can affect these key elements and prevent or treat disease.

Fewer than 20 years have passed since Kary Mullis took the celebrated drive that led to his discovery of PCR. Mullis may have left the field, but manufacturers have taken it up, making a series of refinements in the reagents and instruments used for PCR and cloning. Using these products, curious researchers will continue to identify fresh applications as they ponder what seems to be the unlimited potential of PCR and DNA cloning.

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast cancer is the biggest cause of cancer-related deaths amongst women. But while that sounds like bad news, those statistics don't tell the other side of the story. Many more women get breast lumps than breast cancer. The great majority of breast lumps are benign. And in cases where a breast lump is diagnosed as cancer, if it's diagnosed early the cure rate can be 90 per cent or better.

Most breast cancers develop in the glandular tissue of the breast – hence they're called 'adenocarcinomas'. They most commonly arise from the cells lining the milk ducts of the breast, and sometimes from the milk glands themselves.
Lumps are quite common in the breast in women and 95 per cent are benign. Most are due to hormonal effects on the glandular tissue causing areas of lumpy tissue.

Some are fibroadenomas (a fibroadenoma is also called a breast mouse). These are firm breast lumps made up of fibrous and glandular tissue. Fibroadenomas are more common in younger women and may become tender in the days before a menstrual period, or grow bigger during pregnancy. They don't necessarily need treatment, especially if a needle biopsy shows them to be benign (more on biopsies later) although they can be surgically removed if they're large.

Or a lump may be a cyst, a small, firm, fluid-filled sac that many women have in their breasts, especially around menstruation time. Many women have multiple cysts (sometimes called 'lumpy breasts', or fibrocystic disease). Breast cysts don't need treatment either, but they can be aspirated (drained).

A malignant (cancerous) lump is different. It tends to be hard, with an irregular edge. As it grows, it becomes attached to (and can retract) the skin or nipple. If advanced, it can give the skin a pitted appearance, like an orange peel. Sometimes the nipple can secrete a clear or bloodstained fluid, though this very uncommon.

And like other malignant tumours, it can spread beyond the site of origin. Breast cancer spreads first via the lymphatic ducts to the lymph nodes that drain the breast (these are found in the armpit closest to the breast). A malignant lump under the arm tends to be hard and fixed to surrounding tissues.

In advanced cases, cancer cells travel via the bloodstream to other organs, especially the liver, lungs, bone and brain. So there might be symptoms related to secondary cancers (also called metastases) in these organs.

In a few cases, evidence of distant spread may be the first sign that a person has breast cancer. For instance, a person might complain of back pain and be found to have metastases in the spine. The original (or 'primary') breast cancer may only be discovered after tests.

Cells in a malignant tumour multiply faster than normal cells, so it can put a strain on the body's metabolism. The person may be tired, lose weight, and lose their appetite. The more advanced the cancer, the more pronounced these symptoms are.

Of course, many other conditions can cause these symptoms. If you have these symptoms, the chance that they are due to advanced breast cancer is very low, but they should be checked by a doctor.

Therapeutic Cloning vs Reproductive Cloning

Cloning is the act of making a genetically identical organism. This paper will address whether the cloning of humans should be legalized in the United States. There are several different kinds of cloning; however, I will be addressing two of them, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning of humans should be legalized, but reproductive cloning of humans should not be legalized.

If someone was to need an organ transplant then there are two major obstacles which they need to negotiate. One, they would have to wait for an organ donor. Two, their body's immune system would have to accept the donated organ. If the immune system does not accept the organ right away, the patient would need to go on antibiotics to suppress their immune system. The danger in this is that the patient would be vulnerable to many diseases that a normal immune system would have no problem fighting off. A common cold or ear ache could become fatal to the patient. If this person got infected, they would have to be taken off the antibiotics long enough for their immune system to overcome the infection. The exclusion of the antibiotics would then cause the immune system to reject the organ. Therapeutic cloning of humans is the use of cloning to produce new body tissue from stem cells-a cell that can be made into other cells of the same type indefinitely-for use in the treatment of disease or injury. With therapeutic cloning scientists could clone specific tissues of the patient and grow a new organ for the patient in a laboratory. This would eliminate the waiting for an organ because one will be grown for them in the laboratory. This could also eliminate the possibility of the immune system rejecting the organ because it is from the patient's own body; therefore, the immune system would not recognize the new organ as a threat.

Another example would be if someone needed an arm. If someone were to get seriously hurt in war or a car accident, then therapeutic cloning of humans could give them an arm or leg. Again, the body would not reject it because it is coming from the body's own cells.

Along with organ transplants, therapeutic cloning can help with advances in curing vital diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes. Scientists can take just a few skin cells from a patient with diabetes, let it grow for 14 days, and then its stem cells would be extracted. Scientists would then try to find a cure for the disease. This takes many human embryos because it is a trial and error process to find a cure for such intricate diseases. It takes many tests to see if the cure is effective, and if the rest of the human body will be able to handle the cure without any side effects.

Reproductive cloning of humans is using cloning to produce a new genetically identical human from the cells of another human. Reproductive cloning should not be legalized because it is morally and ethically wrong that children are being born in laboratories with a group of scientists for parents and a patent on them. Scientists are said to be “playing god”, and that is morally and ethically wrong. Sexual reproduction has worked for thousands of years so why should we change that now? For some scientists the answer is selective traits, or choosing what traits they want to see appear in the new born baby. They believe they can give wanted traits like strength, speed and desired looks to humans like they do with plants. This is like “playing god”. The human is no longer a unique individual, but rather a piece of property with a patent on it. This is similar to what Hitler wanted to do. He wanted to make a “super army” by selecting traits, this way he could have an unlimited amount of big, strong, and fast men. This is not only unethical, but dangerous! Reproductive cloning of humans is not all bad. There is an advantage to it. The advantage is: if an infertile couple wants to pass on their family genes, then cloning themselves would pose as a great way to create children. Sure, that would be great for that family, but how many times would scientists fail in finding that perfect way to clone humans? How many babies would be successful in birth, but then have mental and/or physical defects for the rest of their life. We cannot take the risk of having that happen to hundreds or even thousands of children. As you can see, reproductive cloning of humans is much different than therapeutic cloning of humans.

The difference between therapeutic cloning of humans and reproductive cloning of humans is that in therapeutic cloning the embryos never come to term. Reproductive cloning is just the opposite: To have a clone of an original individual. Therapeutic cloning can help in several medical advances such as cures for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes. Reproductive cloning is used primarily to have another human in the world that looks like another. An identical twin is the same idea. With the population rising drastically, why do we need extra people? The only benefit is to allow an infertile couple the passing on of their family genes. Though this is good for them, the risk factor in finding exactly how to clone a healthy human is too high because in finding how many fetuses will die before birth or will be born with mental and/or physical defects for the rest of their life. Therapeutic cloning has many more advantages than reproductive cloning and is worth making legalized for the medical advancements. No humans suffer in therapeutic cloning of humans.

I believe a solution is to make laws stating specific rules on each type of cloning and whether or not they are legal. Reproductive cloning will be continually banned, and therapeutic cloning will be allowed with tight rules. Many people are afraid of what the future will hold if therapeutic cloning is legalized. Those people have a right to be scared. New things are scary, but can we seriously let the advantages go to waste because new things are scary? Obviously, fright is no reason to back down. In other efforts to keep reproductive cloning research to a minimum and to help therapeutic cloning of humans we can fund human therapeutic cloning in hopes that those scientists will be driven towards the legal research rather then trying to legalize or illegally research reproductive cloning of humans. Reproductive cloning will never be dropped completely, and will always be an issue in the future, but for now it is just an effort to look away from it.

Another solution could be to do something similar to what the United Kingdom did. An embryo is the early form of a human. We could make a law that an embryo can only be grown for a two week period and then must be disposed. In this case it is known that until the embryo has reached the fetus state (two weeks of growth) it is not considered a human. This would ensure that it could not be grown into a human, and because it has that two week period to grow they can still extract the cells they need to grow an organ for organ transplants or even an arm for someone.

In conclusion, therapeutic cloning should be legalized due to the medical advances in curing serious diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes. Therapeutic cloning does not involve bringing embryos to term, or the expected time for birth of a child. Reproductive cloning is unethical and morally wrong because we are making humans in a laboratory where they are not meant to be born. Reproductive cloning of humans should not be legalized in the United States. A possible solution for this is to enact laws against reproductive cloning of humans. Therapeutic cloning of humans will not be banned, but funded, which will also help minimize the want to practice reproductive cloning research of humans.

Cloning and Economic Impacts

Observers have recently seen the field of genetics advance at an unprecedented pace. "Dolly" the first cloned sheep is only a few years old. We now view news reports of cloned cattle, and most experts suggest that the remaining technical hurdles to cloning human beings will soon be overcome. When human cloning becomes available, what will the market have to say about its use?

Some insights may be gained by looking at the market for human fertility services. Couples who might otherwise be childless are able to conceive children through expensive and time-consuming use of drugs such as Clomid® or Pergonal®. Those who fail with drug therapies may go on to "assisted reproductive technologies" (ART) such as in vitro fertilization in which an egg is fertilized in a laboratory and then carried by either the natural mother or a surrogate. Such procedures cost thousands of dollars and do not assure pregnancy. They are seldom covered by managed health care plans. Fertility treatment is definitely a "luxury good."
Observers are debating the possible market impacts of human cloning. Princeton molecular biologist Lee M. Silver argues that reproductive and "reprogenetic" technologies will be used exclusively by individuals and couples who are driven by the desires to have children, and by the desires to have these children be "better than normal in some way." Writing in the Hofstra Law Review, Silver sees a society in which social and economic classes are separated by the ability to afford the technology, noting "The power of reprogenetics is so great that those families and groups not able to afford its use could become severely disadvantaged. Thus, I believe the real ethical concern with reprogenetics is one of fairness and equality of access, not harm."

Economists wish to follow the market implications a bit further, and argue that cloning could conceivably reduce inequality rather than increase it. Consider baseball superstars such as Alex Rodriguez or Manny Ramirez, who both signed long-term multi-million dollar contracts during the 2000-2001 off-season. Gifted athletes have high earnings because there are few others like them. Suppose Rodriguez, Ramirez, or softball star and orthopedic surgeon Dr. Dot Richardson could be induced to provide the raw material for cloning. What would happen?

The incomes of the superstars, related in part to their scarcity, might decline, if every team could acquire a Rodriguez, Ramirez, or Richardson clone. Moreover, in a recent paper, French economist Gilles Saint-Paul argues over time the bottom of the income distribution might be raised for those who could be induced to be surrogate mothers for the clones by the higher market prices paid by willing buyers for their services.

We can only be sure that both the technology and the rewards will remain uncertain. After over twenty years of research and practice the success rate for ART fertilization is less than 50%. One might only conjecture how long it would be to achieve similar success rates for cloning.
Moreover, the rewards from cloning are also likely to be uncertain. Baseball superstar Jose Canseco has an identical twin brother named Ozzie. Identical twins, in a sense, are nature's clones. Jose Canseco has over 400 major league home runs in a long and distinguished career. Ozzie Canseco, in parts of three major league seasons, batted 65 times, with 13 hits, none of them home runs.

Cloning Technology to Treat Parkinson's Disease

This study represents a major breakthrough in the controversial science of cloning. For the first time, cloning has been shown to successfully treat Parkinson’s disease in an animal. The success is attributed to the fact that this time researchers from Sloan-Kettering Institute gave mice suffering from Parkinson’s disease back their own cloned repaired brain cells. That cut down on the possibility of rejection, common when transplanted cells are not a genetic match.

Researchers report in Nature Medicine that the mice received cloned cells converted into the repaired brain cells that produced dopamine, the chemical missing in Parkinson’s disease which allows smooth muscle movements.

The team first created Parkinson’s disease in mice by destroying their brain cells. They took cells from the tail of the mouse and using the nuclei of mouse egg cells created an embryonic clone of the mouse. The dopamine-producing neurons are removed from the cloned embryos and given to the diseased mice. Those receiving the dopamine-producing neurons showed significant signs of improvement.

Before the transplant, the mice could only move in one direction, but once they received the repaired cells their movement returned to normal. An autopsy revealed the neural cells had grown to form normal connections with other cells.

The key appears to using the mouse’s own cloned embryonic stem cells.

"It demonstrated what we suspected all along -- that genetically matched tissue works better," said Viviane Tabar of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York told Reuters.

The stem cells that did not come from the matched cells did poorly compared to the mice which received cells from their own clones.

Stem cell therapy offers great hope for a cure to Parkinson’s disease which afflicts about 1.5 million in the U.S. and creates a jerking or shaking movement in the muscles. It is an incurable and fatal disease sometimes treated with brain cells from aborted fetuses or cadavers.

The challenge so far has been in cloning nerve cells that survive after they are transplanted.

Dr Kieran Breen, director of research and development at the Parkinson's Disease Society tells the BBC: "This is an exciting development, as for the first time, we can see that it may be possible to create a person's own embryonic stem cells to potentially treat their Parkinson's.

More studies will be carried out for safety. These mice only lived 11 weeks until the study was suspended so the continuation of repair needs to be studied further.

There is a great deal of opposition to using cloning to make human embryos to treat disease.

Researchers from University College London, in a separate study, have identified mutations in a gene which may be responsible for causing Parkinson’s. This may represent the importance of family history and the possibility of an inherited genetic mutation. That discovery could help boost the discovery of new treatments.

Monday, 1 June 2009

Scholarship in Life Sciences

International Scholarships : 16 PhD Fellowships in Life Sciences
International Max Planck Research School / University of Muenster, Germany
International Max Planck Research School - Molecular Biomedicine (IMPRS-MBM)
and Graduate Program Cell Dynamics and Disease (CEDAD)

International PhD Program in Life Sciences
Münster, Germany

Münster's Graduate Program on Cell Dynamics and Disease (CEDAD) offers cutting edge science together with the newly founded International Max Planck Research School - Molecular Biomedicine (IMPRS-MBM).

CEDAD and IMPRS-MBM - jointly run by the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine - offer integrative approaches to biomedical research with a strong emphasis on imaging.

Research areas:

Cell and Molecular Biology
Stem Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Vascular Biology
and more

The application deadline for the 3-year PhD program is June 15, 2009.
Projects start in October 2009. Application forms, further information about the program and research projects can be found at

The program offers excellent scientific and transferable skills training. The program language is English. There are no tuition fees. Successful candidates will receive a competitive tax-free fellowship as well as support with administrative matters, accomodation, visas etc.

We invite applications from highly qualified and motivated students of any nationality.

We are looking forward to your application for a PhD fellowship in Münster, "the world's most liveable city" (LivCom Award 2004).

Contact: Dr. Martin K. Wild, CEDAD / IMPRS-MBM, Schlossplatz 5, 48149 Münster, Germany,

Scholarship in Petroleum Engineering

The University of Stavanger invites applications for a three-year doctorate scholarship in petroleum engineering at the Faculty of Science and Technology in the Department of Petroleum Engineering.

The title of the project is “Frontier petroleum geology exploration”.

Accretionary prisms are large wedges of sedimentary rocks that have been scrapped off the top of the descending oceanic plate along convergent plate margins. These sedimentary wedges have complex tectonic and infill history and are not well understood because they are located mostly under water with little subaerial exposure. Most geological data is limited to marine seismic. Few commercial hydrocarbons are produced from these tectonic settings, even though they are located in the proximity of large giant oil and gas fields.

Therefore these regions are underexplored for hydrocarbons and may hold large quantities of reserves. The aim of the PhD research project is, by compiling and analyzing surface and subsurface data along accretionary prisms worldwide (e.g. Barbados, northern Australian shelf, Offshore Colombia, among others), to understand the different geologic processes that control their petroleum systems. Some specific geologic problems include: interaction between tectonics and sedimentation, source and reservoir rock distribution, preservation potential of hydrocarbon traps, etc. The project will develop from interpretation into classification schemes dependant on geologic processes that will have an impact on the understanding of the petroleum system and their economic importance for hydrocarbon exploration and production.

Applicants must have a Master degree in a geosciences related field related to petroleum. Previous experience in seismic and well interpretation using computer software, structural restorations, stratigraphy, and plate tectonics is desirable, but not necessary.

Applicants must have earned a Master of Science/-Technology degree. It is necessary to have obtained an average grade of B or better in order to qualify. The appointee must be able to work independently and as a member of a team, be creative and innovative. The research fellow must have a good command of both oral and written English.

The selected candidate will be admitted to the PhD program at the University of Stavanger with an agreement to complete the PhD within the duration of the scholarship.

The program will mainly be carried out at the University of Stavanger, apart from a period of study abroad at a recognized and relevant centre of research.

The research fellow is salaried according to the State Salary Code, 17.515, code 1017, LR 20, ltr 45, of NOK 353 200 per annum.

The position provides for automatic membership in the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund, which guarantees favourable retirement benefits. Members may also apply for home investment loans at favourable interest rates.

Project description and further information about the position can be obtained from associate Professor Alejandro Escalona, telephone +47 51 83 22 59, e-mail

Information about appointment procedures can be obtained from Senior Executive Officer Kathrine Molde, telephone +47 51 83 17 44, e-mail

The University is committed to a policy of equal opportunity in its employment practices. The University currently employs few female research fellows within this academic field and women are therefore particularly encouraged to apply.

The application must contain the following documents and material and be submitted in three copies:

* A curriculum vita; including educational background and employment history
* The form Utvidet søkerskjema (Information to be made available to the applicants)
* Diplomas and certificates (certified by the educational institution)
* References
* List of publications
* Any other documentation that the applicant considers relevant

Closing date July 31, 2009.

addressed to:

University of Stavanger
Faculty of Science and Technology
Institute of Petroleum Engineering
N-4036 Stavanger
Or to be sent to

The application should be marked 30029987.

Related post: scholarship information

Thursday, 28 May 2009

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Postdoctoral Molecular Biology and Genetic

The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics is an international research institute with approx. 470 employees, working in the field of medical genomics. A special focus lies on genome analysis of man and other organisms.

The “Genetic Variation, Haplotypes & Genetics of Complex Disease” Group is seeking a strongly motivated

Postdoctoral Scientist / Molecular Biology & Genetics

Our research is focussed on the analysis of molecular haplotype sequences of any genomic region of interest, such as the MHC, involving the usage of haploid clones from fosmid libraries, application of high-throughput (HT) technologies to identify and select haploid sequences of the MHC, 2nd generation sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and determination of haplotype sequences. More information at, see also and p. 48ff,

The position is available April 1st for up to two years with the possibility of extension.

Primary responsibilities:
Handling of fosmid libraries, application and optimisation of established techniques to targeted clone selection (Raymond et al., 2005) at HT, evaluation & implementation of novel selection strategies, management & supervision of a next generation sequencing pipeline and technical staff, close interaction with bioinformatics components.

PhD degree, a strong background in molecular biology /genetic techniques, an edge for technology development, experience with bacterial libraries and HT technologies desirable, familiarity with current concepts in the genetics of complex disease a plus. The candidate should be team-oriented and have excellent oral and written communication skills.

The Max Planck Society is committed to employing more handicapped individuals and especially encourages them to apply. The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.

Applications including the usual documents and two references should be sent to

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
Personalabt. – L03/06
Ihnestr. 63 – 73
14195 Berlin

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PhD scholarship in cell and molecular biology, germany

PhD scholarship in University of Luxembourg

Scholarship in Max Planck Research

Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry

Postdoctoral and PhD Scholarship in Jena

At the Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) of the Friedrich-Schiller-University (FSU) Jena, the following positions are available:

One postdoctoral position (full time)

One PhD studentship (part time)

in Materials Science & Engineering / Physics / Chemistry

The positions are available immediately, subject to approval of funds for 24 months at the Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) of the Friedrich-Schiller-University (FSU) Jena, Germany. The posts are funded jointly by the Thüringer Aufbaubank and industry. The successful applicants will have the opportunity to work at a state-of-the-art facility on biomaterials within one of Germany’s leading research universities.

The Friedrich-Schiller-University is among the leading research universities in the heart of Germany. The Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) focuses on the timely research areas of biomaterials and nanomaterials. The group of Professor Jandt is one of the leading research groups in biomedical engineering in Europe.

The postdoc and the PhD student would conduct research and development on advanced biointerface and implant engineering and testing in close cooperation with industrial partners. Applicants should have a PhD (for the postdoctoral position) or seek a PhD (for the PhD studentship) in materials science, physics, chemistry, biology or a related relevant subject. Previous experience in surface engineering and polymers would be preferred but is not essential.

Experience and abilities in several of the following techniques and skills would be desirable but not essential: polymer processing and structuring, AFM, LFM, ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, FTIR, cell culture and protein adsorption tests. For the postdoctoral position, two years of experience after completion of a PhD in would be ideal. Excellent oral and written communications skills are expected.

For more information about the University and the IMT visit

The monthly salary is depending on research experience and is according to TV-L.

We especially welcome applications of women. Disabled candidates will be preferred if qualified equally.

Applications, including a full CV, list of publications and research experience, skills and three referees, quoting the Reg.-Nr. 57/09 should be sent until 15. June 2009 by email to:

Prof. Dr. Klaus D. Jandt
Chair in Materials Science
Director of Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT)
Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
Löbdergraben 32
D-07743 Jena, Germany

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Scholarship in Max Planck Research

Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry

Postdoctoral Molecular Biology in Germany

The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics is an international research institute with approx. 470 employees, working in the field of medical genomics. A special focus lies on genome analysis of man and other organisms.

The “Genetic Variation, Haplotypes & Genetics of Complex Disease” Group is seeking a strongly motivated

Postdoctoral Scientist / Molecular Biology & Genetics (f/m)
(Library handling, targeted selection by application of HT technologies, 2nd generation sequencing & wet lab management)
(TVöD E 13)  L03/06

Our research is focussed on the analysis of molecular haplotype sequences of any genomic region of interest, such as the MHC, involving the usage of haploid clones from fosmid libraries, application of high-throughput (HT) technologies to identify and select haploid sequences of the MHC, 2nd generation sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and determination of haplotype sequences. More information at, see also and p. 48ff,

The position is available April 1st for up to two years with the possibility of extension.

Primary responsibilities:
Handling of fosmid libraries, application and optimisation of established techniques to targeted clone selection (Raymond et al., 2005) at HT, evaluation & implementation of novel selection strategies, management & supervision of a next generation sequencing pipeline and technical staff, close interaction with bioinformatics components.

PhD degree, a strong background in molecular biology /genetic techniques, an edge for technology development, experience with bacterial libraries and HT technologies desirable, familiarity with current concepts in the genetics of complex disease a plus. The candidate should be team-oriented and have excellent oral and written communication skills.

The Max Planck Society is committed to employing more handicapped individuals and especially encourages them to apply. The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.

Applications including the usual documents and two references should be sent to

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
Personalabt. – L03/06
Ihnestr. 63 – 73
14195 Berlin

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Max Planck Institute scholarship in Structural BiologyS

The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry is one of the leading research institutes within the fields of biochemistry, cell- and structural biology, and biomedicine. With its ten scientific departments, twelve junior research groups, and a staff of around 800 people, the institute is one of the largest institutes within the Max Planck Society.

The department of Structural Cell Biology invites applications for a

PhD studentship

The project involves the structural, biochemical and biophysical analysis of clock proteins, which play an essential role in the regulation of the biological clock and many daily (circadianly) regulated physiological processes in mammals. Next to the cloning, recombinant expression and purification of proteins of interest, the project involves their crystallization (X-ray crystallography), protein-protein- and protein-cofactor interaction studies as well as spectroscopic analyses.

Candidates must have a master or equivalent degree in molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, protein structure analysis or related subjects. Candidates with keen interest in structural biology and protein structure-function relationship are encouraged to apply.

Depending on qualifications remuneration of up to group 13/2 TVöD (public service payment tariff scale) is possible.

The position is open from July 1st 2009 for an initial period of two years with a possible extension for one additional year.

Planck Society is committed to employing more disabled individuals and especially encourages them to apply.

The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.

Please email your application including certificates and references quoting Ref No. 11.09 by 20.06.2009 to the personnel department:

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Junior Research Group Leader

The Biotechnology Centre (BIOTEC, is
a unique interdisciplinary center focussing on research and
teaching in molecular bioengineering. Available immediately, we
are looking for a

Junior Research Group Leader

The position is subject to approval of the third-party funds.
Applicants are expected to have an outstanding international
scientific qualification in one of the fields of interest in the
Biotechnology Centre: in bioinformatics, biophysics, cellular
machines, developmental genetics, genomics, proteomics, or
tissue engineering. Funding consists of the position for the
group leader, one postdoc, one PhD student, one technical
assistant, and support for basic equipment and running costs.
The new research group will be housed in a new state-of-the-art
building equipped with several core facilities. The building is
located on the Biotechnology Campus, next to the medical campus,
situated in the beautiful river Elbe valley.

Funding for the Junior Research Group will run for 5 years. The
period of employment is governed by the Fixed Term Research
Contracts Act (Wissenschaftszeitvertragsgesetz - WissZeitVG).
Remuneration is offered in accordance with the salary scale E 15
TV-L; individual salaries depend on the candidates personal and
educational background and work experience.

For further information, see
Applications from women are particularly welcome. The same
applies to disabled people. Applications should contain a CV and
publication list, description of past and future research
activities, aquired funding, and two letters of recommendation,
and should be sent by June 25th 2009 (Deadlines refer to the date
on the postmark of the University`s Post Room Service) to the
following address: TU Dresden, BIOTEC, Herrn Prof. Michael
Brand, Director, Tatzberg 47-51, 01307 Dresden, Germany or to
email: (Please note: We are
currently not able to receive electronically signed and
encrypted data).



Prof. Michael Brand
TU Dresden, BIOTEC

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Wednesday, 27 May 2009

Download Free Ebook part 2

1. Plant Genotyping

2. Plant Principle Methods and Application

3. E. coli Gene Expression Protocols

4. PCR Cloning Protocols

5. Molecular Cell Biology

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7. Plant Genomics and Proteomics

8. Methods in Molecular Biology: PCR Protocols

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1. Kuby Immunology. Kint Kuby,
2. Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual,
3. Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,
4. Guide to Biotechnology. Deb Carstoiu dkk,
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PhD scholarship in IMPRS Germany

The International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) "The Exploration of Ecological Interactions with Molecular and Chemical Techniques" in Jena, Germany, offers 6 PhD fellowships beginning in January 2009. The research focus is on plant-herbivore interactions, and other ecologically relevant relationships are also investigated.
The IMPRS gives doctoral students the possibility to prepare for their doctoral degree in a 3-year structured program providing excellent research conditions. The degree will be granted by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena. The courses of the IMPRS are held in English.

Students holding a Master’s degree (or equivalent) in molecular biology, ecology, bioinformatics, entomology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry neuroethology or bioinformatics from any national and international university with a proven record of success in one of the relevant disciplines and being interested in examining traits of ecological interactions are eligible to conduct a doctoral project within the IMPRS.

Application deadline is June 30, 2009.
For detailed information on the IMPRS and the application procedure please visit our website


Ini info biotek yang kedua:

Applications are invited for the position of Ph.D. or Diploma students to join the well-equipped Stem Cell Engineering Group at the Department of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn. The research of the group focuses on cellular reprogramming and basic embryonic stem cell biology (Nolden et al., Nature Methods. 2006 Jun;3(6):461; Bosnali M, Edenhofer F., Biol Chem. 2008 Jul;389(7):851). Research will involve analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying cellular reprogramming.

The successful applicant should have a strong background in molecular or cell biology. Previous experience in one of the following areas is desirable but not essential: cultivation of ES cells; transcriptional profiling; retro- or lentiviral transduction, hi-res subcellular imaging; recombinant protein expression. Self-motivation, enthusiasm, and creativity is expected. You will benefit from working in a stimulating interdisciplinary environment encompassing a wide spectrum of modern stem cell biology. We are providing excellent working and laboratory conditions in a newly established laboratory.

Applicants should send a CV and addresses of two academic referees to:
PD Dr. Frank Edenhofer, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn *** email-applications are preferred:

Scholarship in University of Luxembourg

The University of Luxembourg is looking within the Life Sciences Research Unit (LSRU) of its Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication for a:
PhD student in systems biology (M/F)
3-year fixed term contract, renewable 1 year, beginning October 1st, 2009 at the earliest
AFR (Aide à la formation recherche) Grant

The objective of the Life Sciences Research Unit (LSRU) is to implement and to use systems biology approaches to gain further insights in characteristics of inflammatory processes occurring in Alzheimer's disease, the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Diseases occur not only from an internal dysfunction of the complex constitutive interactions between genes, their expression products and their functions, but also from numerous external disturbing interferences, e.g. exposure to cytokines or to a variety of environmental factors, including nutrients originating from food intake.
A lifetime exposure to micronutrients and cytokines may therefore be part of a central molecular process towards atherosclerosis. We propose here a feasibility study, in view to adapt the competences and possible techniques of the LSRU to a Medium Throughput Screening concept and to collect genomic, transcriptomic, simple proteomic and functional data from wet lab in vitro cellular inflammation processes, in order to evidence new genetic biomarkers in atherosclerosis. We will use systems biology and bioinformatics approaches to unify data derived from our own experiments and others reported in the literature and databases with clinical data, to generate in silico models of nuclear receptor and NF-kappaB pathways in metabolism, cellular regulation and inflammation.

Master in Bioinformatics / Biology or equal required
Knowledge in bioinformatics and experience in wet lab and genome biology are desired
Good knowledge in English
Additional French and/or German would be ideal

Application End: 02 June 2009
The University of Luxembourg is an equal opportunity employer.

Kontakt für Bewerbungen:
Prof. Dr. Jean-Luc Bueb
University of Luxembourg, Life Sciences Research Unit: Systems Biology
162 A, avenue de la Faïencerie
L-1511 Luxembourg

Molecular Biology Scholarship in Germany

Our growing laboratory is inviting applications for an excellent, highly motivated PhD student with a strong interest in our scientific area and skills in cell and molecular biology techniques or mouse modeling. We have a long-standing interest in the molecular pathogenesis of Hodgkin lymphoma and identified key molecular defects in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg tumor cells during the last years. We aim at translating our knowledge into novel therapeutic targets and the development of new lymphoma therapeutics.

Applicants are invited to study molecular mechanisms of lymphoma pathogenesis in mouse models and to evaluate novel preclinical therapeutic approaches. Candidates should possess skills in cell and molecular biology techniques or mouse modeling and have a very good command of English language.

Key references related to our research:
Leukemia 22, 2273-7; Leukemia 22:1587-94; Curr Mol Med 8, 51-9; Nat Immunol 7, 207-15; Blood 103, 3511-5; Blood 99, 3398-403

Please send your application including CV, grades and 2 references (name, email, phone) preferentially by email to Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt, Charité, Molekulares Krebsforschungszentrum der Charité, Campus Virchow Klinikum/Forum 4, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin,



Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt
Charité, CVK, Molekulares Krebsforschungszentrum der Charité
Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin

Ansprechpartner: Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt,

Related Link : luxembourg scholarship

Scholarship for women in Australia

Our Fellowships have been awarded to women graduates from more than ten countries, and have supported studies in a wide range of disciplines, for example: marine biology, architecture, law, literature, radiography, mathematics, social work, archaeology, economics, molecular biology, management, music, information technology and performing arts.

Our aim is to assist women with tertiary qualifications to increase their knowledge and broaden their experience through studying or working in a different environment.

Complete information BIOTEK ONLINE and HERE

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Sunday, 10 May 2009

Horse Flu in India

Although India is still free of swine flu, other animal diseases, Equine influenza, or horse flu, has killed 43 horses in the western Indian state of Rajasthan and Gujarat, the Hindu daily reports, Danik Bhaskar, Saturday (9 / 5).

Based on the laboratory reports in Hissar, Haryana, in northern India, justified, the death of animal-animal Equine influenza is caused by the flu disease is also called the horse flu.

The first death occurred in January in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, where 15 horses died due to disease last month, said the report.

To prevent the disease is widespread, the government of Gujarat decided prohibit buying and selling horses in the state.

In Rajasthan, killed 25 horses at a horse show in the area of Jodhpur, according to the report. Equine flu is caused Influansa A virus, endemic in the horse.

This virus can switch to other types of animals and spread in humans. Equine influenza is indicated by the high transmission among horses, and have relatively short incubation period, ie one to five days.

The horse fell ill this flu can develop symptoms of fever, dry cough and nasal mucus from the nose out.

Saturday, 9 May 2009

Monoclonal Antibody to Bird Flu Virus

American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) monoclonal antibodies (mABS) specifically target the hemagglutinin molecule of three highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtypes (H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2). Monoclonal antibodies are immunological recognition proteins that bind to a single epitope on the antigen that was used in their development. Because they are clonal, these antibodies are highly specific reagents which can be useful for clean, high-definition detection of viral antigens by various methods.

These monoclonal antibodies are useful to show broad reactivity against specific hemagglutinins in ELISA assays using recombinant proteins. These products are provided as affinity purified protein from serum free culture supernatants, approximately 1 mg/ml in D-PBS with 0.02% sodium azide, 0.1 ml per vial. These antibodies have been rigorously tested and are ready-to- use.

Swine Flu Research

Swine flu (swine influenza) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of pigs, caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses. Since pigs can be infected with more than one virus type at a time, genes of several viruses from various sources (including humans) can mix, allowing the swine influenza viruses to cross species barrier and eventually cause disease in humans. The clinical symptoms then are similar to seasonal influenza and other acute upper respiratory tract infections, in some cases leading to severe pneumonia and resulting in death. However, since mild or asymptomatic cases may have escaped from recognition, the true extent of this disease among humans is still unknown. Currently, there is no human vaccine on the market which protects against swine influenza.

A new study by University of Maryland researchers suggests that the potential for an avian influenza virus to cause a human flu pandemic is greater than previously thought. Results also illustrate how the current swine flu outbreak likely came about.

As of now, bird flu viruses can infect humans who have contact with birds, but these viruses tend not to transmit easily between humans. However, in research recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor Daniel Perez showed that after reassortment with a human influenza virus, a process that usually takes place in intermediary species like pigs, an avian flu virus requires relatively few mutations to spread rapidly between mammals by respiratory droplets.

"This is similar to the method by which the current swine influenza strain likely formed," said Perez, program director of the University of Maryland. "The virus formed when avian, swine, and human-like viruses combined in a pig to make a new virus. After mutating to be able to spread by respiratory droplets and infect humans, it is now spreading between humans by sneezing and coughing."

A virus vaccine is derived from the virus itself. The vaccine consists of virus components or killed viruses that mimic the presence of the virus without causing disease. These prime the body's immune system to recognize and fight against the virus. The immune system produces antibodies against the vaccine that remain in the system until they are needed. If that virus, or in some cases a closely similar one is later introduced into the system, those antibodies attach to viral particles and remove them before they have time to replicate, preventing or lessening symptoms of the virus.

The immune system also retains antibodies to a virus after being infected with it, so humans have general immunity to human strains of avian influenza strains. But humans do not generally have immunity to avian flu strains because they have not been infected by them before. The surface proteins are sufficiently different to escape the human immune response. Avian flu strains are therefore more dangerous for humans because the human immune system cannot recognize the virus or protect against it.

2 Billion People Potentially Infected by Swine Flu

About 2 billion people in worldwide potentially infected swine flu outbreak, when turned into a pandemic last for 2 years. Chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the handling of bird flu, Keiji Fukuda, explains, the history notes that the third flu pandemic of the world population infected by this kind of outbreak.

Some independent experts agree that although the possibility of estimates indicate that this far has not been many factors that lead to the possibility that. In Mexico, the countries so far high affected swine flu, a number of schools and universities have been opened for the first time when health officials in this country to emphasize the case of epidemic decline.

So far, the case of swine flu has spread in 24 countries. A number of cinemas and bars in Mexico may have been operated fully, on Thursday (7 / 5), after 5 days was closed to prevent the spread of H1N1 virus.

"If the flu pandemic becomes widespread, then a large number of world population infected by it," said Fukuda. "When we observe the pandemic in the past, well-grounded for the possibility of a third world population fell ill a potential virus," he added.

According to Fukuda, with a population of more than 6 billion people, the possibility of H1N1 virus may suffer by 2 million people.

Swine Flu in Japan and U.S.A

Three people from Tokyo have a swine flu infection, which is the first time was in Japan. The three swine flu patients are known as passenger airline arrived at Narita International Airport, Tokyo, after the air travel from Detroit.

According to NHK, Saturday (9 / 5), two patients swine flu was the secondary school students and one other is a teacher who just follow the school holidays in Canada. They simply have a positive swine flu after the initial medical examination and are currently to be a quarantine in a hospital that is located not far from Narita Airport.

In U.S, case of swine flu has increased 2 times.However , Deputy Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dave Daigle, emphasizing the epidemic is not growing rapidly.

World Health Organization (WHO) reported a case of swine flu was found in 25 countries. According to the official director of the WHO global influenza program, Sylvie Briand, so far there are 2500 cases of swine flu in the world, the latest in 4 cases found in Brazil.

The Bird Flu and Swine Flu

Proverb which says that it is not know so no pity, no pity so no love and no love then no matter, it seems appropriate as the illustration of the confusion and fear of the world community at this time in a bird flu pandemic in Asia and the swine flu in Mexico. As we know, infection of the bird flu disease has a mortality risk is high enough by others if not immediately medically. What causes disease and how the flu is currently a debate among scientists in microbiology worldwide. This becomes interesting because the two flu disease is equally caused by the spread of influenza virus type A. Bird flu disease is caused by the H5N1 virus and swine flu is caused by H1N1 virus attack.

According to the name, the influenza virus type A, H1N1 is generally found in many pigs so that known as swine flu. The influenza virus type A, H5N1 is generally found in many birds so known as bird flu. Both influenza virus type A was also together can spread from human to human. The difference, H1N1 has a high speed of the spread more higher than H5N1. In fact, according to latest research results, with just one sneeze produce as much 100,000 virus H1N1 can stick in anywhere, and potentially spread the disease to people who touch the things that affected sneezing. However, the H5N1 virus is more violent than H1N1. This is because the level of the percentage of deaths due to H5N1 is higher, as much 80 percent while H1N1 is causing the death of as much as 7.7 percent reported by the government of Mexico. Although the level of small percentage of death H1N1 virus has a high-speed distribution of higher and up to now has spread to Mexico, Spain, France, UK, Canada, the United States and Hongkong. This certainly makes the world of fear especially evident this virus is able to spread from human to human so that potentially lead to a global pandemic, such as happened in the year 1918 in Spain. Uniquely, the disease causes flu in Mexico is influenza virus type A H1N1 strain that resulted from mixing different versions of the influenza virus usually attacks the human species, poultry, and pigs have a history with no contact with pigs. However, the speed of experts in microbiology to detect this virus has been successfully reduced risk in a global pandemic.

Human and Virus

Scientists have been doing a lot of research on the virus mutation, rapid detection techniques with methods of molecular biology has also been much developed, antiviral medication has been produced, but the efforts to free humanity from the threat of the virus apparently still far from expectations. This cycle continues until this time, a consequence of virus infection of the disease difficult to overcome the war against disease and infection is still difficult to predict when it will finish.

Step anticipation that we must do is to always be vigilant and prepared themselves to face the threat with better every type of virus, how to detect, characterization, and also how to take action. In addition people traffic and cattle that originate from countries endemic virus must be watch out and without compromise to prevent the spread of the virus. We deserve to be grateful, because succeed who have experience dealing with bird flu disease. The Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Health has developed a system for national pandemic preparedness. This system has succeeded in preventing the spread of bird flu virus that the Asia region. For pandemic flu to pigs, this system must be strengthened. Slightly different from the bird flu, the future control of swine flu at this time is the entrance of air and sea across the country.

Negotiate with bacteria

Based on the report of the WHO (World Health Organization), an organization under the United Nations that concern with health problems, until now one of the largest disease cause of death worldwide is the disease infection. As we know, drugs that widely used to eradicate the causes of bacterial infection are antibiotics. Initially, the use of antibiotic drugs has shown progress in the efforts of disease infection, however that continue used cause various problems. This is because antibiotics can cause side effects that can harm the human body especially if the use of the dose that is not exactly cause the bacteria often become resistant. To solve the problem from the nature of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, microbiology experts as compete with the bacteria to compete in the creation and innovation. Since microbiology experts to find new classes of antibiotics, the bacteria also develop the capacity defense (resistance) through a delay mechanism for the genetic change (mutation). This cycle continues until this time, a result of disease infection and the more difficult to overcome the war against disease infection is still difficult to predict when the end will be if only relying on antibiotics ammunition.

As the nature of spread of bacteria resistance to antibiotics, experts continue to microbiology research and development to explore the steps that a breakthrough has changed the approach "friendship". One approach is based quorum sensing is to understand how bacteria communicate with each other and coordinate in the expression. In details, this approach based discovery by the bacteria Vibrio harveyi that is usually found in the cause of disease only after establishing a community (colony) and mutually communicate with each other with the language bacteria (auto inducer, AI). In the normal situation where the amount of Vibrio harveyi under the quorum as saprofite only and does not cause disease. So also with the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in normal conditions it can live together with each other without the cell with the wet nurse. But at the time due to high cells density of communication-intensive, it is able to make biofilm and damage the body's immune system. As a result the human body easily disease.

This unique phenomenon unique in the bacteria is not different from the behavior of human beings in daily life in the community. As an illustration, a subset of a large mass in humans can be used to express something that is constructive (building) or the damage. In addition, the choir or a group of people can also express a harmonious choir. Some people can also work together to build a house of worship, village roads, irrigation channel or bridge. In a demonstration, a large amount of mass is able to break down the iron fences and solid walls in the House of Representatives building. A number of mass can also misbehave and judge their self. They beat up a member of the Armed Forces that the action of theft of livestock owned. They also beat the pickpocket and thief chicken roll. In fact, the behavior misbehave demonstrator, judge yourself against the main perpetrators and criminal acts of harmonious expression of the choir may not be carried out if there alone. Illustration shows that the expression of human behavior and more influenced by the group of people and environment around. Included in a decision process often required a number of people who present to achieve quorum so that the decisions taken are considered valid and binding.

Behavior and expression that depends on the presence of a number of members (quorum) is not only possessed by humans and animals that make community but also have become routine activities bacteria for a long time. May be among us who have asked, whether the bacteria may be a communication such as the members of the House of Representatives discussion and making a decision to meet quorum. The answer is yes, and this is the phenomenon that has been imbue microbiology experts to be more deep bacterial communication design and strategy of war is more camaraderie in the fight against infection diseases. Facts have proved that the development of new antibiotics that can not guarantee there will be no more pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Therefore the approach should be developed in the long term and more friendly. By understanding how bacteria communicate and coordinate, then we hope to find a way control the bacteria that are not always based on antibiotics, but the approach to the negotiations to prevent the occurrence of mass collecting bacteria and disrupt bacterial communication. With this approach, the negotiations do not bombard us with the bacteria that kill shot, but let the bacteria live in close proximity during the activity not spread disease.

By understanding the mechanisms of language and communication in bacteria, the experts could focus on microbiology research to find how to prevent bacterial communication. Retardation bacterial communication can be done with the use of natural extracts from medicinal plants, endophite microbes (microbes that live in the network plants), and compound metabolite from the sea alga. Communication between the bacteria will not occur if the compound of anti-quorum sensing is able to disable the use of AHL disentangle density and chemical signals used by bacteria to communicate.

It has no patience to see the action of anti-quorum sensing resulted by microbiology experts in negotiating with the bacteria. Success of the negotiation with the bacteria of the promise that our life to be more beautiful and to be more special. Hopefully…