Thursday, 28 May 2009

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Postdoctoral Molecular Biology and Genetic

The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics is an international research institute with approx. 470 employees, working in the field of medical genomics. A special focus lies on genome analysis of man and other organisms.

The “Genetic Variation, Haplotypes & Genetics of Complex Disease” Group is seeking a strongly motivated

Postdoctoral Scientist / Molecular Biology & Genetics

Our research is focussed on the analysis of molecular haplotype sequences of any genomic region of interest, such as the MHC, involving the usage of haploid clones from fosmid libraries, application of high-throughput (HT) technologies to identify and select haploid sequences of the MHC, 2nd generation sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and determination of haplotype sequences. More information at http://www.molgen.mpg.de, see also http://www.molgen.mpg.de/~genetic-variation/ and p. 48ff, http://www.molgen.mpg.de/institute/research-reports/2006/MPIMG-Report2006.pdf

The position is available April 1st for up to two years with the possibility of extension.

Primary responsibilities:
Handling of fosmid libraries, application and optimisation of established techniques to targeted clone selection (Raymond et al., 2005) at HT, evaluation & implementation of novel selection strategies, management & supervision of a next generation sequencing pipeline and technical staff, close interaction with bioinformatics components.

Qualifications:
PhD degree, a strong background in molecular biology /genetic techniques, an edge for technology development, experience with bacterial libraries and HT technologies desirable, familiarity with current concepts in the genetics of complex disease a plus. The candidate should be team-oriented and have excellent oral and written communication skills.

The Max Planck Society is committed to employing more handicapped individuals and especially encourages them to apply. The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.

Applications including the usual documents and two references should be sent to

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
Personalabt. – L03/06
Ihnestr. 63 – 73
14195 Berlin
Germany

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Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry


Postdoctoral and PhD Scholarship in Jena

At the Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) of the Friedrich-Schiller-University (FSU) Jena, the following positions are available:

One postdoctoral position (full time)

One PhD studentship (part time)

in Materials Science & Engineering / Physics / Chemistry

The positions are available immediately, subject to approval of funds for 24 months at the Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) of the Friedrich-Schiller-University (FSU) Jena, Germany. The posts are funded jointly by the Thüringer Aufbaubank and industry. The successful applicants will have the opportunity to work at a state-of-the-art facility on biomaterials within one of Germany’s leading research universities.

The Friedrich-Schiller-University is among the leading research universities in the heart of Germany. The Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT) focuses on the timely research areas of biomaterials and nanomaterials. The group of Professor Jandt is one of the leading research groups in biomedical engineering in Europe.

The postdoc and the PhD student would conduct research and development on advanced biointerface and implant engineering and testing in close cooperation with industrial partners. Applicants should have a PhD (for the postdoctoral position) or seek a PhD (for the PhD studentship) in materials science, physics, chemistry, biology or a related relevant subject. Previous experience in surface engineering and polymers would be preferred but is not essential.

Experience and abilities in several of the following techniques and skills would be desirable but not essential: polymer processing and structuring, AFM, LFM, ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, FTIR, cell culture and protein adsorption tests. For the postdoctoral position, two years of experience after completion of a PhD in would be ideal. Excellent oral and written communications skills are expected.

For more information about the University and the IMT visit http://www.matwi.uni-jena.de/

The monthly salary is depending on research experience and is according to TV-L.

We especially welcome applications of women. Disabled candidates will be preferred if qualified equally.

Applications, including a full CV, list of publications and research experience, skills and three referees, quoting the Reg.-Nr. 57/09 should be sent until 15. June 2009 by email to:

Prof. Dr. Klaus D. Jandt
Chair in Materials Science
Director of Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT)
Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
Löbdergraben 32
D-07743 Jena, Germany

k.jandt@uni-jena.de

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Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry


Postdoctoral Molecular Biology in Germany

The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics is an international research institute with approx. 470 employees, working in the field of medical genomics. A special focus lies on genome analysis of man and other organisms.

The “Genetic Variation, Haplotypes & Genetics of Complex Disease” Group is seeking a strongly motivated

Postdoctoral Scientist / Molecular Biology & Genetics (f/m)
(Library handling, targeted selection by application of HT technologies, 2nd generation sequencing & wet lab management)
(TVöD E 13)  L03/06

Our research is focussed on the analysis of molecular haplotype sequences of any genomic region of interest, such as the MHC, involving the usage of haploid clones from fosmid libraries, application of high-throughput (HT) technologies to identify and select haploid sequences of the MHC, 2nd generation sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and determination of haplotype sequences. More information at http://www.molgen.mpg.de, see also http://www.molgen.mpg.de/~genetic-variation/ and p. 48ff, http://www.molgen.mpg.de/institute/research-reports/2006/MPIMG-Report2006.pdf

The position is available April 1st for up to two years with the possibility of extension.

Primary responsibilities:
Handling of fosmid libraries, application and optimisation of established techniques to targeted clone selection (Raymond et al., 2005) at HT, evaluation & implementation of novel selection strategies, management & supervision of a next generation sequencing pipeline and technical staff, close interaction with bioinformatics components.

Qualifications:
PhD degree, a strong background in molecular biology /genetic techniques, an edge for technology development, experience with bacterial libraries and HT technologies desirable, familiarity with current concepts in the genetics of complex disease a plus. The candidate should be team-oriented and have excellent oral and written communication skills.

The Max Planck Society is committed to employing more handicapped individuals and especially encourages them to apply. The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.

Applications including the usual documents and two references should be sent to

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
Personalabt. – L03/06
Ihnestr. 63 – 73
14195 Berlin
Germany

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Max Planck Institute scholarship in Structural BiologyS

The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry is one of the leading research institutes within the fields of biochemistry, cell- and structural biology, and biomedicine. With its ten scientific departments, twelve junior research groups, and a staff of around 800 people, the institute is one of the largest institutes within the Max Planck Society.

The department of Structural Cell Biology invites applications for a

PhD studentship

The project involves the structural, biochemical and biophysical analysis of clock proteins, which play an essential role in the regulation of the biological clock and many daily (circadianly) regulated physiological processes in mammals. Next to the cloning, recombinant expression and purification of proteins of interest, the project involves their crystallization (X-ray crystallography), protein-protein- and protein-cofactor interaction studies as well as spectroscopic analyses.

Candidates must have a master or equivalent degree in molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, protein structure analysis or related subjects. Candidates with keen interest in structural biology and protein structure-function relationship are encouraged to apply.

Depending on qualifications remuneration of up to group 13/2 TVöD (public service payment tariff scale) is possible.

The position is open from July 1st 2009 for an initial period of two years with a possible extension for one additional year.

Planck Society is committed to employing more disabled individuals and especially encourages them to apply.

The Max Planck Society seeks to increase the number of women in those areas where they are underrepresented and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply.



Please email your application including certificates and references quoting Ref No. 11.09 by 20.06.2009 to the personnel department: eva.wolf@mpi-dortmund.mpg.de

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Junior Research Group Leader

The Biotechnology Centre (BIOTEC, www.biotec.tu-dresden.de) is
a unique interdisciplinary center focussing on research and
teaching in molecular bioengineering. Available immediately, we
are looking for a

Junior Research Group Leader

The position is subject to approval of the third-party funds.
Applicants are expected to have an outstanding international
scientific qualification in one of the fields of interest in the
Biotechnology Centre: in bioinformatics, biophysics, cellular
machines, developmental genetics, genomics, proteomics, or
tissue engineering. Funding consists of the position for the
group leader, one postdoc, one PhD student, one technical
assistant, and support for basic equipment and running costs.
The new research group will be housed in a new state-of-the-art
building equipped with several core facilities. The building is
located on the Biotechnology Campus, next to the medical campus,
situated in the beautiful river Elbe valley.

Funding for the Junior Research Group will run for 5 years. The
period of employment is governed by the Fixed Term Research
Contracts Act (Wissenschaftszeitvertragsgesetz - WissZeitVG).
Remuneration is offered in accordance with the salary scale E 15
TV-L; individual salaries depend on the candidates personal and
educational background and work experience.

For further information, see www.biotec.tu.-dresden.de.
Applications from women are particularly welcome. The same
applies to disabled people. Applications should contain a CV and
publication list, description of past and future research
activities, aquired funding, and two letters of recommendation,
and should be sent by June 25th 2009 (Deadlines refer to the date
on the postmark of the University`s Post Room Service) to the
following address: TU Dresden, BIOTEC, Herrn Prof. Michael
Brand, Director, Tatzberg 47-51, 01307 Dresden, Germany or to
email: katrin.grosser@biotec.tu-dresden.de (Please note: We are
currently not able to receive electronically signed and
encrypted data).

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Von:

Prof. Michael Brand
katrin.grosser@biotec.tu-dresden.de
TU Dresden, BIOTEC
Dresden

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Wednesday, 27 May 2009

Download Free Ebook part 2

1. Plant Genotyping

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4. PCR Cloning Protocols

5. Molecular Cell Biology

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PhD scholarship in IMPRS Germany

The International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) "The Exploration of Ecological Interactions with Molecular and Chemical Techniques" in Jena, Germany, offers 6 PhD fellowships beginning in January 2009. The research focus is on plant-herbivore interactions, and other ecologically relevant relationships are also investigated.
The IMPRS gives doctoral students the possibility to prepare for their doctoral degree in a 3-year structured program providing excellent research conditions. The degree will be granted by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena. The courses of the IMPRS are held in English.

Students holding a Master’s degree (or equivalent) in molecular biology, ecology, bioinformatics, entomology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry neuroethology or bioinformatics from any national and international university with a proven record of success in one of the relevant disciplines and being interested in examining traits of ecological interactions are eligible to conduct a doctoral project within the IMPRS.

Application deadline is June 30, 2009.
For detailed information on the IMPRS and the application procedure please visit our website http://imprs.ice.mpg.de/

berlin

Ini info biotek yang kedua:

Applications are invited for the position of Ph.D. or Diploma students to join the well-equipped Stem Cell Engineering Group at the Department of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn. The research of the group focuses on cellular reprogramming and basic embryonic stem cell biology (Nolden et al., Nature Methods. 2006 Jun;3(6):461; Bosnali M, Edenhofer F., Biol Chem. 2008 Jul;389(7):851). Research will involve analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying cellular reprogramming.

The successful applicant should have a strong background in molecular or cell biology. Previous experience in one of the following areas is desirable but not essential: cultivation of ES cells; transcriptional profiling; retro- or lentiviral transduction, hi-res subcellular imaging; recombinant protein expression. Self-motivation, enthusiasm, and creativity is expected. You will benefit from working in a stimulating interdisciplinary environment encompassing a wide spectrum of modern stem cell biology. We are providing excellent working and laboratory conditions in a newly established laboratory.

Applicants should send a CV and addresses of two academic referees to:
PD Dr. Frank Edenhofer, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn *** email-applications are preferred: f.edenhofer@uni-bonn.de.




Scholarship in University of Luxembourg

The University of Luxembourg is looking within the Life Sciences Research Unit (LSRU) of its Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication for a:
PhD student in systems biology (M/F)
3-year fixed term contract, renewable 1 year, beginning October 1st, 2009 at the earliest
AFR (Aide à la formation recherche) Grant

The objective of the Life Sciences Research Unit (LSRU) is to implement and to use systems biology approaches to gain further insights in characteristics of inflammatory processes occurring in Alzheimer's disease, the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Diseases occur not only from an internal dysfunction of the complex constitutive interactions between genes, their expression products and their functions, but also from numerous external disturbing interferences, e.g. exposure to cytokines or to a variety of environmental factors, including nutrients originating from food intake.
A lifetime exposure to micronutrients and cytokines may therefore be part of a central molecular process towards atherosclerosis. We propose here a feasibility study, in view to adapt the competences and possible techniques of the LSRU to a Medium Throughput Screening concept and to collect genomic, transcriptomic, simple proteomic and functional data from wet lab in vitro cellular inflammation processes, in order to evidence new genetic biomarkers in atherosclerosis. We will use systems biology and bioinformatics approaches to unify data derived from our own experiments and others reported in the literature and databases with clinical data, to generate in silico models of nuclear receptor and NF-kappaB pathways in metabolism, cellular regulation and inflammation.

Profil
Master in Bioinformatics / Biology or equal required
Knowledge in bioinformatics and experience in wet lab and genome biology are desired
Good knowledge in English
Additional French and/or German would be ideal

Application End: 02 June 2009
The University of Luxembourg is an equal opportunity employer.

Kontaktdaten
Kontakt für Bewerbungen:
Prof. Dr. Jean-Luc Bueb
E-Mail: jean-luc.bueb@uni.lu
University of Luxembourg, Life Sciences Research Unit: Systems Biology
162 A, avenue de la Faïencerie
L-1511 Luxembourg




Molecular Biology Scholarship in Germany

Our growing laboratory is inviting applications for an excellent, highly motivated PhD student with a strong interest in our scientific area and skills in cell and molecular biology techniques or mouse modeling. We have a long-standing interest in the molecular pathogenesis of Hodgkin lymphoma and identified key molecular defects in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg tumor cells during the last years. We aim at translating our knowledge into novel therapeutic targets and the development of new lymphoma therapeutics.

Applicants are invited to study molecular mechanisms of lymphoma pathogenesis in mouse models and to evaluate novel preclinical therapeutic approaches. Candidates should possess skills in cell and molecular biology techniques or mouse modeling and have a very good command of English language.

Key references related to our research:
Leukemia 22, 2273-7; Leukemia 22:1587-94; Curr Mol Med 8, 51-9; Nat Immunol 7, 207-15; Blood 103, 3511-5; Blood 99, 3398-403

Please send your application including CV, grades and 2 references (name, email, phone) preferentially by email to Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt, Charité, Molekulares Krebsforschungszentrum der Charité, Campus Virchow Klinikum/Forum 4, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, franziska.jundt@charite.de

----------------------------------------------------------------

Von:

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt
franziska.jundt@charite.de
Charité, CVK, Molekulares Krebsforschungszentrum der Charité
Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin

Ansprechpartner: Priv.-Doz. Dr. Franziska Jundt, franziska.jundt@charite.de

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Scholarship for women in Australia

Our Fellowships have been awarded to women graduates from more than ten countries, and have supported studies in a wide range of disciplines, for example: marine biology, architecture, law, literature, radiography, mathematics, social work, archaeology, economics, molecular biology, management, music, information technology and performing arts.

Our aim is to assist women with tertiary qualifications to increase their knowledge and broaden their experience through studying or working in a different environment.

Complete information BIOTEK ONLINE and HERE

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Sunday, 10 May 2009

Horse Flu in India

Although India is still free of swine flu, other animal diseases, Equine influenza, or horse flu, has killed 43 horses in the western Indian state of Rajasthan and Gujarat, the Hindu daily reports, Danik Bhaskar, Saturday (9 / 5).

Based on the laboratory reports in Hissar, Haryana, in northern India, justified, the death of animal-animal Equine influenza is caused by the flu disease is also called the horse flu.

The first death occurred in January in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, where 15 horses died due to disease last month, said the report.



To prevent the disease is widespread, the government of Gujarat decided prohibit buying and selling horses in the state.

In Rajasthan, killed 25 horses at a horse show in the area of Jodhpur, according to the report. Equine flu is caused Influansa A virus, endemic in the horse.

This virus can switch to other types of animals and spread in humans. Equine influenza is indicated by the high transmission among horses, and have relatively short incubation period, ie one to five days.

The horse fell ill this flu can develop symptoms of fever, dry cough and nasal mucus from the nose out.

Saturday, 9 May 2009

Monoclonal Antibody to Bird Flu Virus

American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) monoclonal antibodies (mABS) specifically target the hemagglutinin molecule of three highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtypes (H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2). Monoclonal antibodies are immunological recognition proteins that bind to a single epitope on the antigen that was used in their development. Because they are clonal, these antibodies are highly specific reagents which can be useful for clean, high-definition detection of viral antigens by various methods.



These monoclonal antibodies are useful to show broad reactivity against specific hemagglutinins in ELISA assays using recombinant proteins. These products are provided as affinity purified protein from serum free culture supernatants, approximately 1 mg/ml in D-PBS with 0.02% sodium azide, 0.1 ml per vial. These antibodies have been rigorously tested and are ready-to- use.

Swine Flu Research

Swine flu (swine influenza) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of pigs, caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses. Since pigs can be infected with more than one virus type at a time, genes of several viruses from various sources (including humans) can mix, allowing the swine influenza viruses to cross species barrier and eventually cause disease in humans. The clinical symptoms then are similar to seasonal influenza and other acute upper respiratory tract infections, in some cases leading to severe pneumonia and resulting in death. However, since mild or asymptomatic cases may have escaped from recognition, the true extent of this disease among humans is still unknown. Currently, there is no human vaccine on the market which protects against swine influenza.



A new study by University of Maryland researchers suggests that the potential for an avian influenza virus to cause a human flu pandemic is greater than previously thought. Results also illustrate how the current swine flu outbreak likely came about.

As of now, bird flu viruses can infect humans who have contact with birds, but these viruses tend not to transmit easily between humans. However, in research recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor Daniel Perez showed that after reassortment with a human influenza virus, a process that usually takes place in intermediary species like pigs, an avian flu virus requires relatively few mutations to spread rapidly between mammals by respiratory droplets.

"This is similar to the method by which the current swine influenza strain likely formed," said Perez, program director of the University of Maryland. "The virus formed when avian, swine, and human-like viruses combined in a pig to make a new virus. After mutating to be able to spread by respiratory droplets and infect humans, it is now spreading between humans by sneezing and coughing."

A virus vaccine is derived from the virus itself. The vaccine consists of virus components or killed viruses that mimic the presence of the virus without causing disease. These prime the body's immune system to recognize and fight against the virus. The immune system produces antibodies against the vaccine that remain in the system until they are needed. If that virus, or in some cases a closely similar one is later introduced into the system, those antibodies attach to viral particles and remove them before they have time to replicate, preventing or lessening symptoms of the virus.

The immune system also retains antibodies to a virus after being infected with it, so humans have general immunity to human strains of avian influenza strains. But humans do not generally have immunity to avian flu strains because they have not been infected by them before. The surface proteins are sufficiently different to escape the human immune response. Avian flu strains are therefore more dangerous for humans because the human immune system cannot recognize the virus or protect against it.

2 Billion People Potentially Infected by Swine Flu

About 2 billion people in worldwide potentially infected swine flu outbreak, when turned into a pandemic last for 2 years. Chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the handling of bird flu, Keiji Fukuda, explains, the history notes that the third flu pandemic of the world population infected by this kind of outbreak.

Some independent experts agree that although the possibility of estimates indicate that this far has not been many factors that lead to the possibility that. In Mexico, the countries so far high affected swine flu, a number of schools and universities have been opened for the first time when health officials in this country to emphasize the case of epidemic decline.

So far, the case of swine flu has spread in 24 countries. A number of cinemas and bars in Mexico may have been operated fully, on Thursday (7 / 5), after 5 days was closed to prevent the spread of H1N1 virus.



"If the flu pandemic becomes widespread, then a large number of world population infected by it," said Fukuda. "When we observe the pandemic in the past, well-grounded for the possibility of a third world population fell ill a potential virus," he added.

According to Fukuda, with a population of more than 6 billion people, the possibility of H1N1 virus may suffer by 2 million people.

Swine Flu in Japan and U.S.A

Three people from Tokyo have a swine flu infection, which is the first time was in Japan. The three swine flu patients are known as passenger airline arrived at Narita International Airport, Tokyo, after the air travel from Detroit.

According to NHK, Saturday (9 / 5), two patients swine flu was the secondary school students and one other is a teacher who just follow the school holidays in Canada. They simply have a positive swine flu after the initial medical examination and are currently to be a quarantine in a hospital that is located not far from Narita Airport.



In U.S, case of swine flu has increased 2 times.However , Deputy Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dave Daigle, emphasizing the epidemic is not growing rapidly.

World Health Organization (WHO) reported a case of swine flu was found in 25 countries. According to the official director of the WHO global influenza program, Sylvie Briand, so far there are 2500 cases of swine flu in the world, the latest in 4 cases found in Brazil.

The Bird Flu and Swine Flu

Proverb which says that it is not know so no pity, no pity so no love and no love then no matter, it seems appropriate as the illustration of the confusion and fear of the world community at this time in a bird flu pandemic in Asia and the swine flu in Mexico. As we know, infection of the bird flu disease has a mortality risk is high enough by others if not immediately medically. What causes disease and how the flu is currently a debate among scientists in microbiology worldwide. This becomes interesting because the two flu disease is equally caused by the spread of influenza virus type A. Bird flu disease is caused by the H5N1 virus and swine flu is caused by H1N1 virus attack.



According to the name, the influenza virus type A, H1N1 is generally found in many pigs so that known as swine flu. The influenza virus type A, H5N1 is generally found in many birds so known as bird flu. Both influenza virus type A was also together can spread from human to human. The difference, H1N1 has a high speed of the spread more higher than H5N1. In fact, according to latest research results, with just one sneeze produce as much 100,000 virus H1N1 can stick in anywhere, and potentially spread the disease to people who touch the things that affected sneezing. However, the H5N1 virus is more violent than H1N1. This is because the level of the percentage of deaths due to H5N1 is higher, as much 80 percent while H1N1 is causing the death of as much as 7.7 percent reported by the government of Mexico. Although the level of small percentage of death H1N1 virus has a high-speed distribution of higher and up to now has spread to Mexico, Spain, France, UK, Canada, the United States and Hongkong. This certainly makes the world of fear especially evident this virus is able to spread from human to human so that potentially lead to a global pandemic, such as happened in the year 1918 in Spain. Uniquely, the disease causes flu in Mexico is influenza virus type A H1N1 strain that resulted from mixing different versions of the influenza virus usually attacks the human species, poultry, and pigs have a history with no contact with pigs. However, the speed of experts in microbiology to detect this virus has been successfully reduced risk in a global pandemic.

Human and Virus

Scientists have been doing a lot of research on the virus mutation, rapid detection techniques with methods of molecular biology has also been much developed, antiviral medication has been produced, but the efforts to free humanity from the threat of the virus apparently still far from expectations. This cycle continues until this time, a consequence of virus infection of the disease difficult to overcome the war against disease and infection is still difficult to predict when it will finish.

Step anticipation that we must do is to always be vigilant and prepared themselves to face the threat with better every type of virus, how to detect, characterization, and also how to take action. In addition people traffic and cattle that originate from countries endemic virus must be watch out and without compromise to prevent the spread of the virus. We deserve to be grateful, because succeed who have experience dealing with bird flu disease. The Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Health has developed a system for national pandemic preparedness. This system has succeeded in preventing the spread of bird flu virus that the Asia region. For pandemic flu to pigs, this system must be strengthened. Slightly different from the bird flu, the future control of swine flu at this time is the entrance of air and sea across the country.

Negotiate with bacteria

Based on the report of the WHO (World Health Organization), an organization under the United Nations that concern with health problems, until now one of the largest disease cause of death worldwide is the disease infection. As we know, drugs that widely used to eradicate the causes of bacterial infection are antibiotics. Initially, the use of antibiotic drugs has shown progress in the efforts of disease infection, however that continue used cause various problems. This is because antibiotics can cause side effects that can harm the human body especially if the use of the dose that is not exactly cause the bacteria often become resistant. To solve the problem from the nature of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, microbiology experts as compete with the bacteria to compete in the creation and innovation. Since microbiology experts to find new classes of antibiotics, the bacteria also develop the capacity defense (resistance) through a delay mechanism for the genetic change (mutation). This cycle continues until this time, a result of disease infection and the more difficult to overcome the war against disease infection is still difficult to predict when the end will be if only relying on antibiotics ammunition.

As the nature of spread of bacteria resistance to antibiotics, experts continue to microbiology research and development to explore the steps that a breakthrough has changed the approach "friendship". One approach is based quorum sensing is to understand how bacteria communicate with each other and coordinate in the expression. In details, this approach based discovery by the bacteria Vibrio harveyi that is usually found in the cause of disease only after establishing a community (colony) and mutually communicate with each other with the language bacteria (auto inducer, AI). In the normal situation where the amount of Vibrio harveyi under the quorum as saprofite only and does not cause disease. So also with the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in normal conditions it can live together with each other without the cell with the wet nurse. But at the time due to high cells density of communication-intensive, it is able to make biofilm and damage the body's immune system. As a result the human body easily disease.



This unique phenomenon unique in the bacteria is not different from the behavior of human beings in daily life in the community. As an illustration, a subset of a large mass in humans can be used to express something that is constructive (building) or the damage. In addition, the choir or a group of people can also express a harmonious choir. Some people can also work together to build a house of worship, village roads, irrigation channel or bridge. In a demonstration, a large amount of mass is able to break down the iron fences and solid walls in the House of Representatives building. A number of mass can also misbehave and judge their self. They beat up a member of the Armed Forces that the action of theft of livestock owned. They also beat the pickpocket and thief chicken roll. In fact, the behavior misbehave demonstrator, judge yourself against the main perpetrators and criminal acts of harmonious expression of the choir may not be carried out if there alone. Illustration shows that the expression of human behavior and more influenced by the group of people and environment around. Included in a decision process often required a number of people who present to achieve quorum so that the decisions taken are considered valid and binding.

Behavior and expression that depends on the presence of a number of members (quorum) is not only possessed by humans and animals that make community but also have become routine activities bacteria for a long time. May be among us who have asked, whether the bacteria may be a communication such as the members of the House of Representatives discussion and making a decision to meet quorum. The answer is yes, and this is the phenomenon that has been imbue microbiology experts to be more deep bacterial communication design and strategy of war is more camaraderie in the fight against infection diseases. Facts have proved that the development of new antibiotics that can not guarantee there will be no more pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Therefore the approach should be developed in the long term and more friendly. By understanding how bacteria communicate and coordinate, then we hope to find a way control the bacteria that are not always based on antibiotics, but the approach to the negotiations to prevent the occurrence of mass collecting bacteria and disrupt bacterial communication. With this approach, the negotiations do not bombard us with the bacteria that kill shot, but let the bacteria live in close proximity during the activity not spread disease.

By understanding the mechanisms of language and communication in bacteria, the experts could focus on microbiology research to find how to prevent bacterial communication. Retardation bacterial communication can be done with the use of natural extracts from medicinal plants, endophite microbes (microbes that live in the network plants), and compound metabolite from the sea alga. Communication between the bacteria will not occur if the compound of anti-quorum sensing is able to disable the use of AHL disentangle density and chemical signals used by bacteria to communicate.

It has no patience to see the action of anti-quorum sensing resulted by microbiology experts in negotiating with the bacteria. Success of the negotiation with the bacteria of the promise that our life to be more beautiful and to be more special. Hopefully…

Friday, 8 May 2009

Global Warming

What is global warming?

Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.

What is the greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hot day, the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot. This is because the heat and light from the sun can get into the car, by going through the windows, but it can’t get back out. This is what the greenhouse effect does to the earth. The heat and light can get through the atmosphere, but it can’t get out. As a result, the temperature rises.

The squiggle lines coming from the sun are visible light and the lines and arrows inside the car are infrared light.

The sun’s heat can get into the car through the windows but is then trapped. This makes what ever the place might be, a greenhouse, a car, a building, or the earth’s atmosphere, hotter. This diagram shows the heat coming into a car as visible light (light you can see) and infrared light (heat). Once the light is inside the car, it is trapped and the heat builds up, just like it does in the earth’s atmosphere.

Sometimes the temperature can change in a way that helps us. The greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on. Without it, the earth would be freezing, or on the other hand it would be burning hot. It would be freezing at night because the sun would be down. We would not get the sun’s heat and light to make the night somewhat warm. During the day, especially during the summer, it would be burning because the sun would be up with no atmosphere to filter it, so people, plants, and animals would be exposed to all the light and heat.

Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able to have people living on it, if there gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually warmer, and many plants, animals, and people will die. They would die because there would be less food (plants like corn, wheat, and other vegetables and fruits). This would happen because the plants would not be able to take the heat. This would cause us to have less food to eat, but it would also limit the food that animals have. With less food, like grass, for the animals that we need to survive (like cows) we would even have less food. Gradually, people, plants, and animals would all die of hunger.

What are greenhouse gasses?

Greenhouse gasses are gasses are in the earth’s atmosphere that collect heat and light from the sun. With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’s atmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a result people, animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong.

What is global warming doing to the environment?

Global warming is affecting many parts of the world. Global warming makes the sea rise, and when the sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is a big problem for many of the plants, animals, and people on islands. The water covers the plants and causes some of them to die. When they die, the animals lose a source of food, along with their habitat. Although animals have a better ability to adapt to what happens than plants do, they may die also. When the plants and animals die, people lose two sources of food, plant food and animal food. They may also lose their homes. As a result, they would also have to leave the area or die. This would be called a break in the food chain, or a chain reaction, one thing happening that leads to another and so on.

The oceans are affected by global warming in other ways, as well. Many things that are happening to the ocean are linked to global warming. One thing that is happening is warm water, caused from global warming, is harming and killing algae in the ocean.

Algae is a producer that you can see floating on the top of the water. (A producer is something that makes food for other animals through photosynthesis, like grass.) This floating green algae is food to many consumers in the ocean. (A consumer is something that eats the producers.) One kind of a consumer is small fish. There are many others like crabs, some whales, and many other animals. Fewer algae is a problem because there is less food for us and many animals in the sea.

Global warming is doing many things to people as well as animals and plants. It is killing algae, but it is also destroying many huge forests. The pollution that causes global warming is linked to acid rain. Acid rain gradually destroys almost everything it touches. Global warming is also causing many more fires that wipe out whole forests. This happens because global warming can make the earth very hot. In forests, some plants and trees leaves can be so dry that they catch on fire.

What causes global warming?

Many things cause global warming. One thing that causes global warming is electrical pollution. Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse than others. In most cases, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity. Fossil fuels are made of dead plants and animals. Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many pollutants (chemicals that pollute the air, water, and land) are sent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of these chemicals are called greenhouse gasses.

We use these sources of energy much more than the sources that give off less pollution. Petroleum, one of the sources of energy, is used a lot. It is used for transportation, making electricity, and making many other things. Although this source of energy gives off a lot of pollution, it is used for 38% of the United States’ energy.

Some other examples of using energy and polluting the air are:

Turning on a light
Watching T.V.
Listening to a stereo
Washing or drying clothes
Using a hair dryer
Riding in a car
Heating a meal in the microwave
Using an air conditioner
Playing a video game
Using a dish washer

When you do these things, you are causing more greenhouse gasses to be sent into the air. Greenhouse gasses are sent into the air because creating the electricity you use to do these things causes pollution. If you think of how many times a day you do these things, it’s a lot. You even have to add in how many other people do these things! That turns out to be a lot of pollutants going into the air a day because of people like us using electricity. The least amount of electricity you use, the better.

When we throw our garbage away, the garbage goes to landfills. Landfills are those big hills that you go by on an expressway that stink. They are full of garbage. The garbage is then sometimes burned. This sends an enormous amount of greenhouse gasses into the air and makes global warming worse.

Another thing that makes global warming worse is when people cut down trees. Trees and other plants collect carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas.

Carbon dioxide is the air that our body lets out when we breathe. With fewer trees, it is harder for people to breathe because there is more CO2 in the air, and we don’t breathe CO2, we breathe oxygen. Plants collect the CO2 that we breathe out, and they give back oxygen that we breathe in. With less trees and other plants, such as algae, there is less air for us, and more greenhouse gases are sent into the air. This means that it is very important to protect our trees to stop the greenhouse effect, and also so we can breathe and live.

This gas, CO2, collects light and heat (radiant energy), produced by the sun, and this makes the earth warmer. The heat and light from the sun is produced in the center of the sun. (The sun has layers just like the earth.)
The dirty yellow color on outside is the surface. The light and dark yellow colored area is the convection zone. The orange colored area is the radiative zone, and the red colored area is the core. The squiggle lines represent radiant energy.

This layer is called the core. Just like a core of an apple, it is in the middle. Here there is a very high temperature, about 27,000,000°F. This heat escapes out of this layer to the next layer, the radiative zone. This layer is cooler, about 4,500,000°F. Gradually, the heat and light will pass through the convection zone at a temperature of around 2,000,000°F. When it gets to the surface, the temperature is about 10,000°F. Finally, the heat and light is sent into space. This is called radiant energy (heat and light). The radiant energy reaches the earth’s atmosphere. As a result of this process we get light and heat. When you pollute, you send chemicals into the air that destroy our atmosphere, so more heat and light cannot escape from the earth’s atmosphere.

What are people doing to stop global warming?

People are doing many things to try to stop global warming. One thing people are doing is carpooling. Carpooling is driving with someone to a place that you are both going to. This minimizes the amount of greenhouse gases put into the air by a car.

Another thing that people are doing is being more careful about leaving things turned on like the television, computer, and the lights. A lot of people are taking time away from the television, and instead, they are spending more time outdoors. This helps our planet out a lot. Now, more people are even riding busses, walking to school, and riding their bikes to lower the amount of greenhouse gases in the air. Planting trees and recycling also helps. If you recycle, less trash goes to the dump, and less trash gets burned. As a result, there are fewer greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere.

Watch what you buy. Many things, such as hairspray and deodorant, now are made to have less of an impact on the atmosphere. Less greenhouse gasses will rise into the air, and global warming will slow down.

What is the government doing to stop global warming?

The government is doing many things to help stop global warming. The government made a law called The Clean Air Act so there is less air pollution. Global warming is making people get very bad illnesses that could make them disabled, very sick, and sometimes even die. The Clean Air Act is making many companies change their products to decrease these problems. Part of the law says that you may not put a certain amount of pollutants in the air. Hairspray and some other products, like foam cups, had this problem. Making and using these products let out too much volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), ozone-destroying chemicals (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), and related chemicals (such as CO2) into the air. Now, almost all of these products have a label on them telling people what this product can do to the environment and many people. By 2015 all products listed on the Clean Air Act will have this label on them:

WARNING: contains or manufactured with (the chemical would go here. For example chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), a substance which harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere.

Almost all of the other chemicals that could be harmful will have this label on them hopefully by this time (2015) as well.

The Clean Air Act has also made car companies change some of the things inside of the cars. Cars pollute a lot. While cars make more than half of the world’s smog (visible pollution in the air), many things that cars need to move and heat up make even more pollution. Some things that are inside of cars, buses, trucks, and motorcycles, like gasoline, pollute the air when the fuel is burned. It comes out as a chemical and when mixed in the air, forms smog. Smog is a kind of pollution that you see in the form of a cloud. If you have ever been to California you can see a lot of smog in some places. Sometimes the smog gets so bad that you cannot see at all! Smog forms when car exhaust, pollution from homes, and pollution from factories mixes in the air and has a chemical reaction. The sun’s heat and light add to the reaction.

Cars, buses, and trucks are also responsible for over 50% of dangerous chemicals let into the air. Some of these chemicals can cause cancer, birth defects, trouble breathing, brain and nerve damage, lung injures, and burning eyes. Some of the pollutants are so harmful that they can even cause death.

What are some of the other dangerous chemicals?

Some other chemicals that cause air pollution and are bad for the environment and people are:

Ozone- Ozone is produced when other pollution chemicals combine. It is the basic element of smog. It causes many different kinds of health issues dealing with the lungs. It can damage plants and limit sight. It can also cause a lot of property damage.

VOC’s (volatile organic compounds, smog formers)- VOC’s are let into the air when fuel is burned. This chemical can cause cancer. It can also harm plants.

NOx (nitrogen dioxide)- This chemical forms smog. It is also formed by burning sources of energy, like gas, coal, and oil, and by cars. This chemical causes problems in the respiratory system (including the lungs). It causes acid rain, and it can damage trees. This chemical can eat away buildings and statues.

CO (carbon monoxide)- The source of this chemical is burning sources of energy. It causes blood vessel problems and respiratory failures.

PM-10 (particulate matter)- The source of this chemical is plowing and burning down fields. It can cause death and lung damage. It can make it hard for people to breathe. The smoke, soot, ash, and dust formed by this chemical can make many cities dirty.

Sulfur Dioxide- This chemical is produced by making paper and metals. This chemical can cause permanent lung damage. It can cause acid rain which kills trees and damages building and statues.

Lead- This chemical is in paint, leaded gasoline, smelters, and in lead storage batteries. It can cause many brain and nerve damages and digestive problems.

Kid can help stop global warming, too!!

Although adults do many things to help stop global warming, kids can do just as much. Kids can’t do hard things like making a law, but we can do easier things like not watching as much TV. You can listen to your parents when they say, turn off your lights or go play outside. Listening to them and actually trying to help can help you, your environment, and the world.