Saturday, 6 June 2009

Free Download Medical EBOOKS

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Related posts: 1. Download EBOOK Gratis Part1



Thursday, 4 June 2009

How to write a science thesis



Every student can benefit from extra help with matters of organization and style in the writing of term papers, theses, and dissertations - as a precursor to better grades and greater respect. This handy guide from the best-selling author team of "The Art of Scientific Writing" shows how to achieve maximum benefit with relatively little effort.

Based on a proven concept that assumes no special talent for writing, the book will be of great value to both native and non-native speakers of English. The treatment is rich in examples and challenging problems (with solutions provided in an appendix), applicable either in conjunction with a course or for self-study.


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How can start earning money with adsense

Adsense is considered as one of the most powerful tool in a website publisher’s arsenal. It enables a person to monetize their sites easily. If used properly, it can generate a very large and healthy income for them. However if you are not using them rightly and just maximizing the income you squeeze from it, you are actually leaving a lot of money on the table. Something all people hate doing.

How you can start earning money with Adsense can be done easily and quickly. You will be amazed at the results you will be getting in such a short period of time. Start by writing some quality content articles which are also keyword incorporated. There are a lot of people given the gift of being good with words. Writing comes easy for them. Why not make it work in such a way that you will be earning some extra cash in the process.

There are actually three steps to put into mind before you begin writing your ads and having an effective Adsense.

Keyword search. Find some popular subjects, keywords or phrase. Select the ones which you think has more people clicking through. This is actually a keyword selector and suggestion tool that some sites are offering to those who are just their Adsense business.

Writing articles. Start writing original content with keywords from the topics that you have achieved in your search. Take note that search engines are taking pride in the quality of their articles and what you will be writing should keep up with their demands.

Quality content site. Build a quality content site incorporated with Adsense ads that is targeting the subject and keywords of your articles and websites. This is where all that you’ve done initially will go to and this is also where they will prove their worth to you.

The proper positioning of your ads should be done with care. Try to position your ads where surfers are most likely to click on them. According to research, the one place that surfers look first when they visit a certain site is the top left. The reason behind this is not known. Maybe it is because some of the most useful search engine results are at the top of all other rankings. So visitors tend to look in that same place when browsing through other sites.

Some of those who are just starting at this business may think they are doing pretty well already and thinking that their clickthrough rates and CPM figures are quite healthy. However, there are more techniques and styles to generate more clicks to double your earnings. By knowing these techniques and working them to your advantage, you will realize that you will be getting three times more than other people who have been previously doing what they are doing.

Finally, Adsense has some excellent tracking statistics that allows webmasters and publishers to track their results across a number of site on a site by site, page by page, or any other basis you wanted. You should be aware oft his capability and make the most of it because it is one powerful tool that will help you find out which ads are performing best. This way, you can fine tune your Adsense ads and focus more on the ones being visited the most rather than those who are being ignored.

Another thing you should know. Banners and skyscrapers are dead. Ask the experts. So better forget about banners and skyscrapers. Surfers universally ignore these kinds of ad formats. The reason behind this is that they are recognized as an advert and advert are rarely of any interest that’s why people ignore them.

To really start making money with Adsense, you should have a definite focus on what you wanted to achieve and how you will go about achieving them. As with any other kind of business ventures, time is needed coupled with patience. Do not just ignore your site and your Adsense once you have finished accomplishing them. Spare some time, even an hour, making adjustments to the Adsense ads on your sites to quickly trigger your Adsense income. Give it a try and you would not regret having gotten into Adsense in the first place.


PCR Cloning Technology and Applications

PCR had an immediate impact on cloning technology. It could produce large quantities of DNA that could be readily cloned and subsequently used to study the functions and behavior of genes in living systems.DNA cloning involves four basic steps. Scientists first isolate the source and vector DNA and free them from contaminants. They then use restriction enzymes to cut these two DNAs, creating ends that can connect the source DNA with the vector. Next they bond the source's DNA to the vector's with a DNA ligase enzyme that repairs the cuts and creates a single length of DNA. Finally the DNA is transformed into a host cell — a bacterium or another organism.

PCR-mediated cloning is a family of methods rather than a single technique. TA cloning, for example, uses Taq polymerase, an enzyme known as Tth DNA polymerase, or one of a group of other polymerases that preferentially add the base adenine (A) to particular ends of PCR products. Such products can be cloned into a vector containing complementary overhangs of the base thymidine (T). Blunt-end cloning uses DNA polymerases that possess proofreading activity, such as Pwo DNA polymerase. These actively remove mispaired nucleotides from the ends of double-stranded DNA and generate blunt-end PCR products. Researchers have also been able to amplify long lengths of DNA using mixtures of several different DNA polymerases. When the DNA fragments become longer than 10,000 bases, the conventional vectors do not work well as carriers of the target DNA. Instead scientists use hybrid vectors that contain drug resistance marker genes to allow for positive selection of the DNA fragment of interest. They are especially well suited for cloning large mammalian genes or multigene fragments.

What cloning method should a research team use? That depends on several factors, including the type of DNA polymerase, the length of the PCR product, and the purpose of the cloning experiment. Whatever approach they choose, researchers must test the bacterial host cells for the presence of the source DNA in their cytoplasm once they have the chance to divide. If the procedure has successfully transformed the vector into the host cell, the cell will test positive for the vector via a selectable marker.

In the early days of cloning, very few scientists had the skill and understanding to perform these fairly sophisticated techniques. Recently, however, the invention of pretested kits has given most life scientists simple access to this technique. CLONTECH Laboratories, Epicentre Technologies, Promega, Stratagene, and several other firms offer cloning kits and tools, along with effective technical support.

New cloning methods continue to emerge. "There will be a push to get away from traditional cloning methods toward other types of enzymes to do the cloning," says Carsten Carstens of Stratagene. "A major development will be the use of site-specific recombinant technology. We're about to release technology for using linear vectors in bacterial cells. That will be a lot more efficient in making libraries." Adds Henry Ji, Stratagene's director of new product development: "Responding to market need we have put together a program to clone antigens into expression vectors." Eppendorf Scientific has just introduced a method of cloning through electrofusion. "The general applications include monoclonal antibodies, different tumor cells, and ornamental plants," says Sharon Durbin, the company's product manager for electrofusion products.

A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS

The Human Genome Project and the commercial sequencing effort led by Celera Genomics have made significant progress in determining the DNA sequences of humans. The teams completed working drafts last year. Several labs have started to proof those drafts and to determine some of the missing sequence data. DNA sequencing uncovers important variations in the nucleotide bases, or polymorphisms, that make up our genes. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with an increased risk of developing diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Without PCR and cloning to generate enough DNA and permit examination of the functions of the genes that contain it, life science teams would not have made this kind of progress.

PCR technology promises advances in human genetics. For example, Thilly and colleagues have founded a company, Peoples Genetics, that aims to discover the inherited mutations that occur in minuscule proportions in the population (see accompanying story, "Genetics for the People"). They believe that this is essential to discovering disease-causing mutations in human populations.

Fields of science beyond traditional molecular biology laboratories have benefited from PCR. It has become a well-recognized tool in forensic science. Police labs routinely use it to identify blood and other forms of evidence (see accompanying story, "Science in a 'Dirty, Grungy World'"). In Manchester, UK, the Forensic Science Service uses Extract-N-Amp, a kit from Sigma-Aldrich, to differentiate between marijuana and other plants.

PCR has also become a useful tool in some unexpected scientific disciplines. For example, archaeologists have found it effective to determine relationships between ancient civilizations and to study the evolutionary biology of different animal species. PCR can amplify very small samples of DNA from virtually any tissue, including examples thousands of years old. These molecular readings have become very important in validating (and sometimes disproving) scientific conclusions based on circumstantial evidence.

Cloning technology has also enabled the routine study of gene function. It is now a relatively simple process to isolate large DNA fragments that contain genes and then to express the genes in transgenic hosts. In addition, the RT-PCR technique permits scientists to determine the genes responsible for producing very low levels of messenger RNA that may play an important role in cellular metabolism and the disease process. Researchers have only scratched the surface of understanding the many processes of the living cell.

Ultimately, the tools of PCR and cloning are geared toward understanding, treating, and preventing the diseases that affect the quality of human life each day. Take rheumatoid arthritis, a disease that affects both young and old individuals. Researchers know that a cytokine called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a major role in this disease. By causing immune cells to attack the body's own cells, it causes very painful inflammation. TNF binds to a specific membrane-bound receptor on the immune cells. Scientists have used recombinant DNA technology to clone an altered form of the receptor gene that codes for a soluble form of the receptor containing the TNF binding site. Injected into an arthritis patient, this modified protein binds to TNF and inhibits it from binding to the receptors on immune cells. That prevents the immune cells from initiating the signal cascade that causes inflammation.

Research teams are investigating many other disease processes in the hope of finding the key element or elements in the cell's signal transduction pathways that can present a point of attack on a disease. Several pharmaceutical companies are studying signal transduction pathways to develop drugs which can affect these key elements and prevent or treat disease.

Fewer than 20 years have passed since Kary Mullis took the celebrated drive that led to his discovery of PCR. Mullis may have left the field, but manufacturers have taken it up, making a series of refinements in the reagents and instruments used for PCR and cloning. Using these products, curious researchers will continue to identify fresh applications as they ponder what seems to be the unlimited potential of PCR and DNA cloning.


Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast cancer is the biggest cause of cancer-related deaths amongst women. But while that sounds like bad news, those statistics don't tell the other side of the story. Many more women get breast lumps than breast cancer. The great majority of breast lumps are benign. And in cases where a breast lump is diagnosed as cancer, if it's diagnosed early the cure rate can be 90 per cent or better.

Most breast cancers develop in the glandular tissue of the breast – hence they're called 'adenocarcinomas'. They most commonly arise from the cells lining the milk ducts of the breast, and sometimes from the milk glands themselves.
Lumps are quite common in the breast in women and 95 per cent are benign. Most are due to hormonal effects on the glandular tissue causing areas of lumpy tissue.

Some are fibroadenomas (a fibroadenoma is also called a breast mouse). These are firm breast lumps made up of fibrous and glandular tissue. Fibroadenomas are more common in younger women and may become tender in the days before a menstrual period, or grow bigger during pregnancy. They don't necessarily need treatment, especially if a needle biopsy shows them to be benign (more on biopsies later) although they can be surgically removed if they're large.

Or a lump may be a cyst, a small, firm, fluid-filled sac that many women have in their breasts, especially around menstruation time. Many women have multiple cysts (sometimes called 'lumpy breasts', or fibrocystic disease). Breast cysts don't need treatment either, but they can be aspirated (drained).

A malignant (cancerous) lump is different. It tends to be hard, with an irregular edge. As it grows, it becomes attached to (and can retract) the skin or nipple. If advanced, it can give the skin a pitted appearance, like an orange peel. Sometimes the nipple can secrete a clear or bloodstained fluid, though this very uncommon.

And like other malignant tumours, it can spread beyond the site of origin. Breast cancer spreads first via the lymphatic ducts to the lymph nodes that drain the breast (these are found in the armpit closest to the breast). A malignant lump under the arm tends to be hard and fixed to surrounding tissues.

In advanced cases, cancer cells travel via the bloodstream to other organs, especially the liver, lungs, bone and brain. So there might be symptoms related to secondary cancers (also called metastases) in these organs.

In a few cases, evidence of distant spread may be the first sign that a person has breast cancer. For instance, a person might complain of back pain and be found to have metastases in the spine. The original (or 'primary') breast cancer may only be discovered after tests.

Cells in a malignant tumour multiply faster than normal cells, so it can put a strain on the body's metabolism. The person may be tired, lose weight, and lose their appetite. The more advanced the cancer, the more pronounced these symptoms are.

Of course, many other conditions can cause these symptoms. If you have these symptoms, the chance that they are due to advanced breast cancer is very low, but they should be checked by a doctor.


Therapeutic Cloning vs Reproductive Cloning

Cloning is the act of making a genetically identical organism. This paper will address whether the cloning of humans should be legalized in the United States. There are several different kinds of cloning; however, I will be addressing two of them, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning of humans should be legalized, but reproductive cloning of humans should not be legalized.

If someone was to need an organ transplant then there are two major obstacles which they need to negotiate. One, they would have to wait for an organ donor. Two, their body's immune system would have to accept the donated organ. If the immune system does not accept the organ right away, the patient would need to go on antibiotics to suppress their immune system. The danger in this is that the patient would be vulnerable to many diseases that a normal immune system would have no problem fighting off. A common cold or ear ache could become fatal to the patient. If this person got infected, they would have to be taken off the antibiotics long enough for their immune system to overcome the infection. The exclusion of the antibiotics would then cause the immune system to reject the organ. Therapeutic cloning of humans is the use of cloning to produce new body tissue from stem cells-a cell that can be made into other cells of the same type indefinitely-for use in the treatment of disease or injury. With therapeutic cloning scientists could clone specific tissues of the patient and grow a new organ for the patient in a laboratory. This would eliminate the waiting for an organ because one will be grown for them in the laboratory. This could also eliminate the possibility of the immune system rejecting the organ because it is from the patient's own body; therefore, the immune system would not recognize the new organ as a threat.

Another example would be if someone needed an arm. If someone were to get seriously hurt in war or a car accident, then therapeutic cloning of humans could give them an arm or leg. Again, the body would not reject it because it is coming from the body's own cells.

Along with organ transplants, therapeutic cloning can help with advances in curing vital diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes. Scientists can take just a few skin cells from a patient with diabetes, let it grow for 14 days, and then its stem cells would be extracted. Scientists would then try to find a cure for the disease. This takes many human embryos because it is a trial and error process to find a cure for such intricate diseases. It takes many tests to see if the cure is effective, and if the rest of the human body will be able to handle the cure without any side effects.

Reproductive cloning of humans is using cloning to produce a new genetically identical human from the cells of another human. Reproductive cloning should not be legalized because it is morally and ethically wrong that children are being born in laboratories with a group of scientists for parents and a patent on them. Scientists are said to be “playing god”, and that is morally and ethically wrong. Sexual reproduction has worked for thousands of years so why should we change that now? For some scientists the answer is selective traits, or choosing what traits they want to see appear in the new born baby. They believe they can give wanted traits like strength, speed and desired looks to humans like they do with plants. This is like “playing god”. The human is no longer a unique individual, but rather a piece of property with a patent on it. This is similar to what Hitler wanted to do. He wanted to make a “super army” by selecting traits, this way he could have an unlimited amount of big, strong, and fast men. This is not only unethical, but dangerous! Reproductive cloning of humans is not all bad. There is an advantage to it. The advantage is: if an infertile couple wants to pass on their family genes, then cloning themselves would pose as a great way to create children. Sure, that would be great for that family, but how many times would scientists fail in finding that perfect way to clone humans? How many babies would be successful in birth, but then have mental and/or physical defects for the rest of their life. We cannot take the risk of having that happen to hundreds or even thousands of children. As you can see, reproductive cloning of humans is much different than therapeutic cloning of humans.

The difference between therapeutic cloning of humans and reproductive cloning of humans is that in therapeutic cloning the embryos never come to term. Reproductive cloning is just the opposite: To have a clone of an original individual. Therapeutic cloning can help in several medical advances such as cures for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes. Reproductive cloning is used primarily to have another human in the world that looks like another. An identical twin is the same idea. With the population rising drastically, why do we need extra people? The only benefit is to allow an infertile couple the passing on of their family genes. Though this is good for them, the risk factor in finding exactly how to clone a healthy human is too high because in finding how many fetuses will die before birth or will be born with mental and/or physical defects for the rest of their life. Therapeutic cloning has many more advantages than reproductive cloning and is worth making legalized for the medical advancements. No humans suffer in therapeutic cloning of humans.

I believe a solution is to make laws stating specific rules on each type of cloning and whether or not they are legal. Reproductive cloning will be continually banned, and therapeutic cloning will be allowed with tight rules. Many people are afraid of what the future will hold if therapeutic cloning is legalized. Those people have a right to be scared. New things are scary, but can we seriously let the advantages go to waste because new things are scary? Obviously, fright is no reason to back down. In other efforts to keep reproductive cloning research to a minimum and to help therapeutic cloning of humans we can fund human therapeutic cloning in hopes that those scientists will be driven towards the legal research rather then trying to legalize or illegally research reproductive cloning of humans. Reproductive cloning will never be dropped completely, and will always be an issue in the future, but for now it is just an effort to look away from it.

Another solution could be to do something similar to what the United Kingdom did. An embryo is the early form of a human. We could make a law that an embryo can only be grown for a two week period and then must be disposed. In this case it is known that until the embryo has reached the fetus state (two weeks of growth) it is not considered a human. This would ensure that it could not be grown into a human, and because it has that two week period to grow they can still extract the cells they need to grow an organ for organ transplants or even an arm for someone.

In conclusion, therapeutic cloning should be legalized due to the medical advances in curing serious diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes. Therapeutic cloning does not involve bringing embryos to term, or the expected time for birth of a child. Reproductive cloning is unethical and morally wrong because we are making humans in a laboratory where they are not meant to be born. Reproductive cloning of humans should not be legalized in the United States. A possible solution for this is to enact laws against reproductive cloning of humans. Therapeutic cloning of humans will not be banned, but funded, which will also help minimize the want to practice reproductive cloning research of humans.


Cloning and Economic Impacts

Observers have recently seen the field of genetics advance at an unprecedented pace. "Dolly" the first cloned sheep is only a few years old. We now view news reports of cloned cattle, and most experts suggest that the remaining technical hurdles to cloning human beings will soon be overcome. When human cloning becomes available, what will the market have to say about its use?

Some insights may be gained by looking at the market for human fertility services. Couples who might otherwise be childless are able to conceive children through expensive and time-consuming use of drugs such as Clomid® or Pergonal®. Those who fail with drug therapies may go on to "assisted reproductive technologies" (ART) such as in vitro fertilization in which an egg is fertilized in a laboratory and then carried by either the natural mother or a surrogate. Such procedures cost thousands of dollars and do not assure pregnancy. They are seldom covered by managed health care plans. Fertility treatment is definitely a "luxury good."
Observers are debating the possible market impacts of human cloning. Princeton molecular biologist Lee M. Silver argues that reproductive and "reprogenetic" technologies will be used exclusively by individuals and couples who are driven by the desires to have children, and by the desires to have these children be "better than normal in some way." Writing in the Hofstra Law Review, Silver sees a society in which social and economic classes are separated by the ability to afford the technology, noting "The power of reprogenetics is so great that those families and groups not able to afford its use could become severely disadvantaged. Thus, I believe the real ethical concern with reprogenetics is one of fairness and equality of access, not harm."

Economists wish to follow the market implications a bit further, and argue that cloning could conceivably reduce inequality rather than increase it. Consider baseball superstars such as Alex Rodriguez or Manny Ramirez, who both signed long-term multi-million dollar contracts during the 2000-2001 off-season. Gifted athletes have high earnings because there are few others like them. Suppose Rodriguez, Ramirez, or softball star and orthopedic surgeon Dr. Dot Richardson could be induced to provide the raw material for cloning. What would happen?

The incomes of the superstars, related in part to their scarcity, might decline, if every team could acquire a Rodriguez, Ramirez, or Richardson clone. Moreover, in a recent paper, French economist Gilles Saint-Paul argues over time the bottom of the income distribution might be raised for those who could be induced to be surrogate mothers for the clones by the higher market prices paid by willing buyers for their services.

We can only be sure that both the technology and the rewards will remain uncertain. After over twenty years of research and practice the success rate for ART fertilization is less than 50%. One might only conjecture how long it would be to achieve similar success rates for cloning.
Moreover, the rewards from cloning are also likely to be uncertain. Baseball superstar Jose Canseco has an identical twin brother named Ozzie. Identical twins, in a sense, are nature's clones. Jose Canseco has over 400 major league home runs in a long and distinguished career. Ozzie Canseco, in parts of three major league seasons, batted 65 times, with 13 hits, none of them home runs.



Cloning Technology to Treat Parkinson's Disease


This study represents a major breakthrough in the controversial science of cloning. For the first time, cloning has been shown to successfully treat Parkinson’s disease in an animal. The success is attributed to the fact that this time researchers from Sloan-Kettering Institute gave mice suffering from Parkinson’s disease back their own cloned repaired brain cells. That cut down on the possibility of rejection, common when transplanted cells are not a genetic match.

Researchers report in Nature Medicine that the mice received cloned cells converted into the repaired brain cells that produced dopamine, the chemical missing in Parkinson’s disease which allows smooth muscle movements.


The team first created Parkinson’s disease in mice by destroying their brain cells. They took cells from the tail of the mouse and using the nuclei of mouse egg cells created an embryonic clone of the mouse. The dopamine-producing neurons are removed from the cloned embryos and given to the diseased mice. Those receiving the dopamine-producing neurons showed significant signs of improvement.

Before the transplant, the mice could only move in one direction, but once they received the repaired cells their movement returned to normal. An autopsy revealed the neural cells had grown to form normal connections with other cells.

The key appears to using the mouse’s own cloned embryonic stem cells.

"It demonstrated what we suspected all along -- that genetically matched tissue works better," said Viviane Tabar of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York told Reuters.

The stem cells that did not come from the matched cells did poorly compared to the mice which received cells from their own clones.

Stem cell therapy offers great hope for a cure to Parkinson’s disease which afflicts about 1.5 million in the U.S. and creates a jerking or shaking movement in the muscles. It is an incurable and fatal disease sometimes treated with brain cells from aborted fetuses or cadavers.

The challenge so far has been in cloning nerve cells that survive after they are transplanted.

Dr Kieran Breen, director of research and development at the Parkinson's Disease Society tells the BBC: "This is an exciting development, as for the first time, we can see that it may be possible to create a person's own embryonic stem cells to potentially treat their Parkinson's.

More studies will be carried out for safety. These mice only lived 11 weeks until the study was suspended so the continuation of repair needs to be studied further.

There is a great deal of opposition to using cloning to make human embryos to treat disease.

Researchers from University College London, in a separate study, have identified mutations in a gene which may be responsible for causing Parkinson’s. This may represent the importance of family history and the possibility of an inherited genetic mutation. That discovery could help boost the discovery of new treatments.


Monday, 1 June 2009

Scholarship in Life Sciences

International Scholarships : 16 PhD Fellowships in Life Sciences
International Max Planck Research School / University of Muenster, Germany
International Max Planck Research School - Molecular Biomedicine (IMPRS-MBM)
and Graduate Program Cell Dynamics and Disease (CEDAD)

International PhD Program in Life Sciences
Münster, Germany

Münster's Graduate Program on Cell Dynamics and Disease (CEDAD) offers cutting edge science together with the newly founded International Max Planck Research School - Molecular Biomedicine (IMPRS-MBM).

CEDAD and IMPRS-MBM - jointly run by the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine - offer integrative approaches to biomedical research with a strong emphasis on imaging.


Research areas:

Cell and Molecular Biology
Stem Cell Biology
Developmental Biology
Neurobiology
Vascular Biology
Immunology
Microbiology
and more

The application deadline for the 3-year PhD program is June 15, 2009.
Projects start in October 2009. Application forms, further information about the program and research projects can be found at

http://www.cedad.uni-muenster.de

The program offers excellent scientific and transferable skills training. The program language is English. There are no tuition fees. Successful candidates will receive a competitive tax-free fellowship as well as support with administrative matters, accomodation, visas etc.

We invite applications from highly qualified and motivated students of any nationality.

We are looking forward to your application for a PhD fellowship in Münster, "the world's most liveable city" (LivCom Award 2004).

Contact: Dr. Martin K. Wild, CEDAD / IMPRS-MBM, Schlossplatz 5, 48149 Münster, Germany, cedad@uni-muenster.de

http://www.jobs.ac.uk/jobs/CJ581/16_PhD_Fellowships



Scholarship in Petroleum Engineering

The University of Stavanger invites applications for a three-year doctorate scholarship in petroleum engineering at the Faculty of Science and Technology in the Department of Petroleum Engineering.

The title of the project is “Frontier petroleum geology exploration”.

Accretionary prisms are large wedges of sedimentary rocks that have been scrapped off the top of the descending oceanic plate along convergent plate margins. These sedimentary wedges have complex tectonic and infill history and are not well understood because they are located mostly under water with little subaerial exposure. Most geological data is limited to marine seismic. Few commercial hydrocarbons are produced from these tectonic settings, even though they are located in the proximity of large giant oil and gas fields.

Therefore these regions are underexplored for hydrocarbons and may hold large quantities of reserves. The aim of the PhD research project is, by compiling and analyzing surface and subsurface data along accretionary prisms worldwide (e.g. Barbados, northern Australian shelf, Offshore Colombia, among others), to understand the different geologic processes that control their petroleum systems. Some specific geologic problems include: interaction between tectonics and sedimentation, source and reservoir rock distribution, preservation potential of hydrocarbon traps, etc. The project will develop from interpretation into classification schemes dependant on geologic processes that will have an impact on the understanding of the petroleum system and their economic importance for hydrocarbon exploration and production.

Applicants must have a Master degree in a geosciences related field related to petroleum. Previous experience in seismic and well interpretation using computer software, structural restorations, stratigraphy, and plate tectonics is desirable, but not necessary.

Applicants must have earned a Master of Science/-Technology degree. It is necessary to have obtained an average grade of B or better in order to qualify. The appointee must be able to work independently and as a member of a team, be creative and innovative. The research fellow must have a good command of both oral and written English.

The selected candidate will be admitted to the PhD program at the University of Stavanger with an agreement to complete the PhD within the duration of the scholarship.

The program will mainly be carried out at the University of Stavanger, apart from a period of study abroad at a recognized and relevant centre of research.

The research fellow is salaried according to the State Salary Code, l.pl 17.515, code 1017, LR 20, ltr 45, of NOK 353 200 per annum.

The position provides for automatic membership in the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund, which guarantees favourable retirement benefits. Members may also apply for home investment loans at favourable interest rates.

Project description and further information about the position can be obtained from associate Professor Alejandro Escalona, telephone +47 51 83 22 59, e-mail alejandro.escalona@uis.no

Information about appointment procedures can be obtained from Senior Executive Officer Kathrine Molde, telephone +47 51 83 17 44, e-mail kathrine.molde@uis.no

The University is committed to a policy of equal opportunity in its employment practices. The University currently employs few female research fellows within this academic field and women are therefore particularly encouraged to apply.

The application must contain the following documents and material and be submitted in three copies:

* A curriculum vita; including educational background and employment history
* The form Utvidet søkerskjema (Information to be made available to the applicants)
* Diplomas and certificates (certified by the educational institution)
* References
* List of publications
* Any other documentation that the applicant considers relevant

Closing date July 31, 2009.

addressed to:

University of Stavanger
Faculty of Science and Technology
Institute of Petroleum Engineering
N-4036 Stavanger
Or to be sent to jobb-tn@uis.no

The application should be marked st.id 30029987.

Related post: scholarship information